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Social Class & Social Stratification

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Presentation on theme: "Social Class & Social Stratification"— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Class & Social Stratification
Chapter 8 Social Class & Social Stratification

2 Social Stratification
Social stratification is a system of structured social inequality. This is influenced by occupation, income, and education, race, gender, and even age, region of residence, ethnicity, and national origin. fixed, hierarchical arrangement

3 Estate, Caste & Class systems
Stratification systems are usually categorized into one of these three types: Estate -- a system in which a small elite group (owners of property and power) have total control over society’s resources. Caste -- a system where status is assigned based on one’s ascribed status. Class -- a system based primarily on achieved status; however one’s ascribed status can matter.

4 Socioeconomic Status (SES)
Income Occupational prestige Educational achievement

5 ***Activity & Discussion Topic
On a piece of paper, mark down the social class to which you and your family belong. What type of work do you do? Do they do? How much money do they make annually? Share your thoughts on the subject of social class, but do not feel compelled to share you social class with the class. At the end of this lesson, see if you have changed your mind about which class you and/or your family belong in.

6 Income Distribution in the U.S.

7 Social Class Differences
Insert photo 8.1 and .2 in ppt

8 Upper class- more likely to be in love than lower-class people

9 Median Income in the U.S.

10 Mean Household Income Received by Different Income Groups, 1970-2007

11 Wealth Inequality The United States is one of the most “unequal” nations in the world using wealth as the criteria. The wealthiest 1% own 33% of all net worth. The bottom 80% control only 16%. The top 10% also own 88% of all stock. The bottom 40% own less than 1% of total stock holdings.

12 Poverty Poverty line is the amount of money needed to support the basic needs of a household. Established by the Social Security Administration,

13 Poverty & Race 37 million people are poor in the United States, representing 12.5 percent of the population (2008). 33% of Native Americans 25% of Blacks 22% of Hispanics 10% of Asians and Pacific Islanders 8% of non-Hispanic Whites

14 Poverty & Gender The vast majority of the poor have always been women and children, referred to as the feminization of poverty.

15 Poverty among the Old and the Young, 1965-2007

16 Child Poverty in the Wealthier Nations

17 Children in Poverty By 2007, 18 % of all children (those under age 18) in the United States were poor. 10% of non-Hispanic White children 35% of Black children 29% of Hispanic children 12% of Asian American children

18 Homeless in America Over a period of one year, the estimate of the homeless population: about 3.5 million people.


20 Poverty & Homelessness
Video “Homeless: A Cruel Reality”

21 Causes of Poverty The Culture of Poverty Structural Causes of Poverty
Success requires only individual motivation and ability The absence of work values and the irresponsibility of the poor The breakdown of the family, schools, and churches Restructuring of the economy Health care system The status of women in the family and the labor market Childcare system Diminished social support (welfare, public housing and job training)for the poor etc.

22 Luxury Homes
Salary, Income and Paycheck data for Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, Larry Page and other CEO's and Corporate Celebs $1 salary club: 20 white men: big bucks as a salary comes in the 35% bracket, while gains from stocks are taxed up to 15%

23 Social Stratification
Functionalist view Conflict Theorist view Inequality serves an important purpose in society Some positions in society are more functionally important than others Rewards are attached to certain positions Beliefs about success and failure confirm the status of those who succeed NFL salaries Actor salaries Inequality results from a system of domination and subordination The more stratified a society, the less likely that society will benefit from the talents of all its citizens The most vital jobs in society are usually the least rewarded. Leftover food etc.

24 Bailout and salaries of involved CEO’s
CEO pay


26 Karl Marx on Social Class
Bourgeoisie --- the owners of the means of production. Proletariat --- the workers, those who sold their labor; also referred to as the exploited masses. False Consciousness---the Marxist thesis that material and institutional processes in capitalist society are misleading to the proletariat, and to other classes. Ex. Halloween, class creates cultural and social inequality. (Marx) 26

27 Max Weber Class, Status & Party
Multidimensional stratification system comprised of three dimensions: Class – economic forces Status – prestige, culture, the social aspects Party – power, the political dimension One’s position in each of these dimensions influences their life chances. class creates cultural and social inequality. (Marx) Weber… the other way around 27

28 Class Consciousness Karl Marx & Max Weber
Class consciousness is awareness of: the existence of a class structure your shared identification with others in a given class, life chances 3% - upper class 46% - middle class 46% - working class 5% - lower class the National Opinion Research Center (2004) Max Weber: the higher one was in the stratification hierarchy, the more likely he was to be aware of his shared similarities with others. 28

29 Social Mobility: Myth or Reality
Mobility can be intergenerational or intragenerational. Intergenerational is movement between generations. Intragenerational is movement within the same generation. 29

30 Social Mobility Social mobility is affected by more than individual effort. It is also affected by widespread social conditions such as stock market performance, recessions, technology, and globalization. Mobility is a reality in the U.S., but not everyone will achieve it. 30 30

31 Social Stratification Game

32 Social Policy Functionalist view Conflict Theorist view
Because the system is basically fair, social policies should only reward merit. Because the system is basically unfair, social policies should support disadvantaged groups by redirecting society’s resources for a more equitable distribution of income and wealth.

33 ***U.S. Welfare Program

34 Welfare benefit health care food stamps child care assistance
unemployment benefit cash aid housing assistance How much should we give to a teenage single mother who has two children, a middle-aged man, 80 years-old white woman?

35 Food Stamp (NYS) The Food Stamp Program issues monthly benefits that can be used to purchase food at authorized retail food stores.

36 Cash Aid (NYS) Monthly Shelter Allowance (for a family of four with children) $292 (Franklin County) $503 (Suffolk County)

37 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) (1996)
Federal Requirements Families can receive aid for a maximum of 5 years After 2 years they must work (money earned is deducted from the aid money). Teens with children under 18 are ineligible unless they go to school and live with their parents. single parents are required to work at least 30 hours per week. (two parent families: to 35 or 55 hours) Mothers must inform the state who the father of the child is, and he must contribute to the child’s support.

38 True or false Income growth has been greatest for those in the middle class in recent years. The average American household has most of its wealth in the stock market. Old people are the most likely to be poor today. Social mobility is greater in the U.S. than in any other Western nation.

39 Percentage share of income (poorest and richest 20% of population)
Countries are ranked according to the Gini index (or coefficient), a measure of income inequality within a country. A country's Gini rating is between 0 and 100, with 0 indicating perfect equality and 100 indicating absolute inequality. The U.S % 46.4% Source: World Development Index 2002, The World Bank.

40 International comparison
Japan President, Toyota Motor Co.: less than 100 million yen ($1.1 million) President, Honda Motor Co.: 115 million yen ($1.3 million) Toyota’s top 38 executives received an average of 53.1 million yen ($583,000) The U.S. President, Ford Motor Co. : $13.6 million Donald Trump (Trump Organization): $50 million Resource: U.N. income inequality data should be available.

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