Presentation on theme: "Andrew Jackson 1828 - 1834. Election of 1824 Background New political era in the 1800s with westward expansion > SECTIONALISM Democratic-Republican Party."— Presentation transcript:
Election of 1824 Background New political era in the 1800s with westward expansion > SECTIONALISM Democratic-Republican Party was solid in office for 23 years Election of 1824 led to a split (sectional) John Quincy Adams, William Crawford, Henry Clay & Andrew Jackson (all Republicans)
Election Chart Candidate/ PositionElectoral Vote (%)Popular Vote (%) Andrew Jackson – non committal 3843 John Q. Adams – central gov’t 3231 William Crawford – state’s rights 1613 Henry Clay – central gov’t; national bank 1413
Election of 1824 cont. Results Jackson supported in West & South Carried most electoral & popular vote but no clear majority Crawford had a stroke so he was eliminated Clay threw his support to Adams “Corrupt bargain” – Clay named Sec. of State Significance John Q. Adams becomes Pres. New voters in South & West Democratic-Republican Party divided National Republicans led by Adams & Clay Democrats led by Jackson
Election of 1828 Jackson Lacked a formal education “Self-made” man Popular in native South Champion of the people: “Take for your President a man from your body” War of 1812 Hero: Battle of New Orleans Adams “Write” vs. “Fight” Claimed Jackson a gambler & lacked a proper education to serve in this position
How does this political cartoon depict Jackson? Do you think it was accurate? Why or why not?
Election of 1828 continued Results Jackson carried every state in the South & West He received 56% of the popular vote Adams only carried New England states *Turning point because more people were voting Reduced state property qualifications to vote & run for office 3 times more people voted
Jackson’s Policy Spoils System Jackson wanted to reform “lazy” gov’t workers so he gave his friends & supporters jobs as a reward He felt justified because the best people for the job were those who were loyal to him Others claimed it was corrupt (his gambling & poker buddies) 1/5 of office holders were opened up to the future President > rotation in office Positives of this? Negatives??
Banking Crisis When was the 1 st Bank of the U.S. created? Why? Bank was up for charter renewal U.S. gov’t owned 20% of bank stock Jackson believed Congress did NOT have the power to do so Bank Symbol of privilege (rich getting rich) Loaned money to poor which created a cycle of debt Issue= STATE’S RIGHTS How is power divided between the state & federal gov’t?
Bank continued State’s rights vs. federal authority No regulations on bank Bank printed too much money, gave out too many loans, people deposited money into banks run by friends Jackson vetoes the bank bill Congress overrides the veto (election year) Jackson saw Congressional actions as a threat He closed the bank & moved gov’t accounts to the state banks DISASTER for economy > loans & inflation) But he was supported by the common man *Use of checks & balances Jackson wins in 1832!
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) STATE vs. FEDERAL Chief Justice John Marshall sided with the national gov’t on bank issue Bank held federal money so states couldn’t tax it Bank notes represented gold but it gave out too many > fraud This caused the Panic of 1837 (economic depression) *Made it clear that national interests were more important than those of the state
Tariff Controversy Tariff (tax) part of economy since 1816 but unpopular in South (why?) 1828 Congress passed a high tariff on European imports which angered the South – why? Jackson’s V.P. John Calhoun (from S. Carolina) wrote essays on State’s Rights & NULLIFICATION Calhoun Resigns V.P. to take seat in S. Carolina Senate S. Carolina threatens to secede if gov’t collects tax Congress passes a bill to allow the President to use military force to collect taxes Henry Clay develops compromise: reduce tax over 10 years if S. Carolina doesn’t secede
American Indian Policy 1830 Indian Removal Act Jackson favored westward expansion because of exploits of war – we “earned” it Supreme Court against policy Trail of Tears Not the 1 st expulsion of Natives but represents a betrayal of promises/treaties Moved 18,000 Cherokees over 1000 miles to Oklahoma; 4,000 died
Political Parties Whigs/ National Republicans 1834 Jackson’s opponents united as Whigs Led by Henry Clay & Daniel Webster Included supporters of the Bank of U.S., manufacturers in favor of tariff, wealthy businessmen, urban Democrats Roots with Jefferson’s Democratic-Republicans of 1792 but 1 st Democratic Convention in 1832 Led by Jackson Supporters included working class, immigrants, small farmers; rural