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Understanding Medicines Ch. 23 pp. 512 - 525. Lesson 1: The Role of Medicines Classification of Medicines A.Prevent disease B.Fight pathogens C.Relieve.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Medicines Ch. 23 pp. 512 - 525. Lesson 1: The Role of Medicines Classification of Medicines A.Prevent disease B.Fight pathogens C.Relieve."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Medicines Ch. 23 pp. 512 - 525

2 Lesson 1: The Role of Medicines Classification of Medicines A.Prevent disease B.Fight pathogens C.Relieve pain D.Help heart and regulate blood pressure

3 Medicines That Prevent Disease The goal of modern medicine is to prevent disease before they ever occur VaccinesVaccines: They stimulate your body to produce specific antibodies against pathogens Once the antibodies are produced, they give your body long-lasting protection against these specific pathogens

4 Medicines That Prevent Disease AntitoxinsAntitoxins: are extracts of blood fluids that contain antibodies and act more quickly than vaccines They are produced by inoculating animals (injecting) with specific toxins that stimulate the animal’s immune system to produce antibodies against the toxins

5 AntibioticsAntibiotics: a class of chemical agents that destroy disease-causing microorganisms while leaving the patient unharmed The best know, penicillin, was discovered by the British scientist Sir Alexander Fleming. Medicines That Fight Pathogens Click here

6 Antibiotic resistance: Disease-causing microbes that have become resistant to drug therapy are an increasing public health problem. –Though food-producing animals are given antibiotic drugs for important therapeutic, disease prevention or production reasons, these drugs can cause microbes to become resistant to drugs used to treat human illness, –About 70% of bacteria that cause infections in hospitals are resistant to at least one of the drugs most commonly used to treat infections. Medicines That Fight Pathogens

7 –Some research has shown that antibiotics are given to patients more often than guidelines set by federal and other healthcare organizations recommend. –Patients who are prescribed antibiotics but don't take the full dosing regimen can contribute to resistance. –Unless antibiotic resistance problems are detected as they emerge, the world will soon be immune to treatments using antibiotics. Medicines That Fight Pathogens

8 Cardiovascular Medicines 5 Kinds 5 Kinds: 1.Beta blockers - slows HR and lowers BP 2.Diuretics – increase urine production to reduce the amount of water and sodium in the body 3.Vasodilators – increases blood and oxygen flow 4.Antiarrythmics – treats heart rhythm problems 5.Clot-dissolving – prevents blood clots

9 Medicines That Relieve Pain analgesics These medicines are referred to as analgesics (pain relievers) –Aspirin is by far the most common Can be dangerous when the stomach is empty Can interfere with blood clotting and large doses can cause dizziness and ringing in the ears –Some people who are sensitive to aspirin can take ibuprofen or acetaminophen

10 Medicines That Relieve Pain Define the following words (p. 516-517) –Additive Interaction –Synergistic Effect –Antagonist Interaction –Tolerance –Withdrawal

11 Lesson 2: Using Medicines Wisely The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) is in charge of testing and approving medicines for consumer consumption Before a medicine is approved it must meet strict requirements that can take up to 10 years to complete before it is released to the public

12 FDA Approval The manufacturer must supply: –Chemical composition –Intended uses –Effects –Possible side effects –Safe and proven to be “medically effective”

13 Release to the Public There are two ways the FDA can release a medicine: 1.Prescription Only obtain through a doctor’s written instructions to a licensed pharmacist 2.O.T.C. (over the counter) Can be purchased at supermarkets and are deemed safe to be used without direct medical supervision

14 The Controlled Substance Act The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law in1970. The CSA is the legal basis by which the manufacture, importation, possession, and distribution of certain drugs are regulated by the federal government of the United States

15 The Controlled Substance Act Established five categories (schedules) into which all medicines must fall. Schedule I Schedule V

16 Medicine Misuse Giving prescription to another Taking too much or too little of a medicine Taking some one else’s medicine Discontinuing use of a medicine without informing one’s doctor Taking medicine for a longer period of time than was prescribed (this is how you can get addicted) Mixing medicines

17 Labeling of Prescription Medicine Must contain the following: –Prescribing doctor –Patient’s name –Pharmacy name/address –Date filled –Prescription # –Whether refills are permitted –Special instructions for use

18 Labeling of O.T.C. Medicines Must contain the following: –Name of Product –Ingredients –Exact measurement of package contents –Name/address of manufacturer –Purpose of use –Cautions of use –Directions for safe use –Expiration date

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