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Medicines are classified based on how they work in your body.

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Presentation on theme: "Medicines are classified based on how they work in your body."— Presentation transcript:

1 Medicines are classified based on how they work in your body.
People use medicine to restore their body to optimal health. Medicines are drugs that are used to treat or prevent disease or other conditions. Drugs are substances other than food that change the structure or function of the body or mind. All medicines are drugs, but not all drugs are medicines. Drugs are effective in treating illness when taken as directed by a physician or according to the label. Medicines can be classified into four broad categories: 1. prevent disease, 2. fight pathogens, 3. relieve pain and other symptoms, and 4. manage chronic conditions, help maintain or restore health, and regulate body systems.

2 Medicines are classified based on how they work in your body.
Medicines can be classified into four broad Categories: 1. prevent disease 2. fight pathogens 3. relieve pain and other symptoms 4. manage chronic conditions, help maintain or restore health, and regulate body systems.

3 Preventing Disease Vaccines are a preparation that prevents a person from contracting a specific disease. About 95% of children receive them Vaccines contain weakened or dead pathogens that cause the disease. When injected into your body, the vaccine produces antibodies that fight those pathogens. As a result your body creates memory cells that recall how to make those specific antibodies. Which gives you long lasting protection. Some vaccines fade over time (may need them every year or every few years)

4 Antitoxins Antitoxins act like vaccines in preventing disease.
Antitoxins fight bacteria that produce substances that are toxic to the body. Antitoxins are given through a shot, by injecting a safe amount of a specific toxin, which stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. The antibodies are then used to make antitoxin.

5 Fighting Pathogens Antibiotics are a class of drug that destroy disease causing microorganisms, called bacteria. Antibiotics work by either killing bacteria or preventing the bacteria from reproducing. Antibiotics can cause nausea, stomach pain, allergic reactions, and they can lose their effectiveness. Bacteria can develop a resistance in two ways: when antibiotics are overused, and when the patient does not finish taking the full prescription. If you do not finish taking all of a prescription, you may not kill all of the bacteria. The remaining bacteria may develop a resistance or immunity to treatment.

6 Fighting Pathogens Antiviral drugs are used to treat some viral illnesses, such as the flu. Antivirals suppress the virus, but do not kill it. Antiviral drugs allow people to have symptom free times or to minimize the severity of the symptoms but they do not get rid of the virus. Antifungals can suppress or kill fungus cells example: athletes foot and ring worm

7 Relieving Pain The most commonly used medicines are analgesics, or pain relievers. Range from aspirin to narcotics. Aspirin is used to relieve pain and reduce fever. Other analgesics are used to fight inflammation, swelling and pain; example ibuprofen (acetaminophen). Aspirin can cause upset stomach, dizziness, ringing in the ears. Children with a fever who take aspirin are put at risk for getting Reye’s syndrome, a potentially life-threatening illness of the brain and liver. Because of that don’t give aspirin to anyone under 20 years of age unless directed by a doctor. Certain types of medicines that relieve pain can be addictive. These medicines, usually called narcotics, require a doctors prescription.

8 Managing Chronic Conditions
There are four main types of medicines that manage chronic conditions: allergy, body-regulating, antidepressant/antipsychotic, and cancer treatment medicines. Allergy Medicines: Antihistamines reduce allergy symptoms such as sneezing, itchy or watery eyes, and a runny nose. They block the chemicals released by the immune system that cause an allergic response. Individuals who know they are allergic to substances that cause severe reactions can ask a doctor for a single dose shot of epinephrine, which is designed to slow down or stop the allergic reaction.

9 Body Regulating Medicines
Used to help regulate body chemistry. Examples: -Insulin, used by diabetics regulates blood sugar. -Asthma sufferers take medication to control and prevent attacks, they may also use an inhaler during an attack. -Cardiovascular medications are used to regulate blood pressure, normalize heartbeats, or other functions of the cardiovascular system.

10 Taking Medications Medicines enter the body in a variety of ways. -Oral medicines: taken by the mouth. They pass from the digestive system into the bloodstream. -Topical medicines: applied to the skin. Transdermal skin patches also deliver a medicine through the skin. -Inhaled medicines: delivered in a fine mist or powder. Example: asthma medicines -Injected medicines: delivered through a shot, and go directly into the bloodstream.

11 Reactions to Medications
Medicines can have a variety of effects. Medications can cause side effects which are reactions to medicine other than the one intended. Side effects can range from mild to severe.

12 Medicine Interactions
When two or more medicines are taken together or when a medication is taken with certain foods, the combination may have a different effect than when the medicine is taken alone. Types of interactions: -Additive: medicines work together in a positive way. -Synergistic effect: the interaction of two or more medicines that results in a greater effect than when each medicine is taken alone, one medicine increases the strength of another. -Antagonistic: when the effect of one medicine is canceled or reduced when taken with another medicine.

13 Tolerance and Withdrawal
When a person takes a medication for a long period of time, the body can become use to it. Tolerance is a condition in which the body becomes used to the effect of a medicine. The body requires increasingly larger doses to produce the same effect. Withdrawal occurs when a person stops using a medicine on which he or she has become physiologically dependent. Symptoms include nervousness, insomnia, headaches, vomiting, chills, and cramps, which gradually ease in time.

14 Standards for Medicines
All new medicines in the US must meet standards (chemical composition, intended use, effects, and possible side effects along with testing and clinical trials) set by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA does not regulate herbal and dietary supplements. Be cautious in taking them or mixing them with any type of medication. Sometimes, if a drug hasn’t yet completed clinical trials but is thought to be effective, people with life-threatening illnesses are allowed to use the drug, this is referred to as experimental.

15 Prescription Medicines
Are medicines that are dispensed only with the written approval of a licensed physician or nurse-practitioner. Can get the medicine from a pharmacist. Given on the specified amount by the doctor to treat the condition. A prescription medicine should be taken only by the person whose name appears on the label.

16 Over-the-counter (OTC)
Medicines you can buy without a doctor’s prescription and are available without a prescription. Considered safe by the FDA if taken according to the instructions. OTC medications can become very addictive.

17 Medicine Label

18 Medicine Misuse Involves using a medicine in ways other than the intended use. Examples: -Failing to follow the instructions on or in the package. -Giving a prescription medicine to a person for whom it was not prescribed, or taking another person’s medicine. -Taking too much or too little of a medicine. -Taking a medicine for longer or shorter period than prescribed or recommended. -Discontinuing use of a medicine without informing your health care provider. -Mixing medicines without the knowledge or approval of your health care provider.

19 Medicine Abuse Intentionally taking medications for Nonmedical reasons. Abusing any medicine is dangerous and illegal. Misusing medicines can also lead to addictions. One danger of medicine misuse is drug overdose which is a strong, sometimes fatal reaction to taking a large amount of a drug.

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