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Understanding Medicines

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Medicines"— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Medicines

2 Medicine Definition: substances that, when taken internally or applied to the body, help prevent or cure a disease or other medical problem Classifications Prevent disease Fight pathogens (microorganisms that enter the body and attack its cells and tissues) Relieve pain Help the heart and regulate blood pressure

3 Medicines that prevent disease
Vaccines Contain a weakened or dead pathogen to a particular disease Given to prevent one from contracting that disease When the body is exposed to the vaccine it makes antibodies against that disease These antibodies stay in the body so when exposed to the real disease the body is prepared to fight it off Antitoxins Extracts of blood fluids that contain antibodies Act more quickly than vaccines Are made by inoculating animals and uses their antibodies Injected into human after a possible exposure

4 Medicines that fight pathogens
Antibiotics Chemical agents that destroy disease causing microorganisms but leave the patient unharmed Penicillin- discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming They either kill the bacteria or stop it from reproducing ARE NOT affective against viruses Several bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics When someone doesn’t take the full amount of an antibiotic, or stops taking it early, the bacteria becomes more resistant to that antibiotic

5 Medicine to relieve pain
Analgesics OTC analgesics can be harmful Stomach irritation- ulcers Thins the blood making clotting difficult Dizziness and tinnitus Reye’s syndrome in children (illness of brain and liver) Common OTC analgesics Aspirin Ibuprofen (Advil)- anti-inflammatory Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Narcotics Prescription only Can be highly addictive Commonly derivatives of morphine and codeine

6 Analgesics (Pain Relievers)
Aspirin: relieve pain and reduce fever -Blood Thinner -upset stomach, dizziness and ringing in ears -Reye’s Syndrome (brain and liver) Recommended for your age: -Acetaminophen Analgesics have a full range from mild to strong -Strong=Narcotics examples?

7 Managing Chronic Conditions
Treat long term illnesses, maintain or restore health, offer a higher level of wellness. -Allergy Medicines: Antihistamines reduce allergy symptoms by blocking the chemical release from the immune system. Life threatening=single shot of epinephrine Body-regulating medicines: help regulate body chemistry -Insulin, Inhaler, cardiovascular Antidepressant and Antipsychotic: Help regulate brain chemistry or stabilize moods. Cancer Treatments: slow or stop the growth of the cancer cells.

8 Cardiovascular medicines
Five types Beta blockers- helps slow heart rate and lower blood pressure Diuretics- decreases water and sodium, reducing blood fluid volume, especially important after heart failure Vasodilators- dilate blood vessels to increase blood and oxygen flow Antiarrhythmic- help control abnormal heart rhythms Clot- Dissolving – lower hypertension and prevents blot clotting

9 How Medicines can Enter the Body
There are four ways they can enter 1. oral medications (by mouth) 2. topical medications (through the skin) 3. Inhaled medications (breathed in through the lungs) 4. Injected medications (through a needle, or bite)

10 Reactions in the body Be aware of side effects.
When two medicines are taken together or taken with certain foods- the effect may not be the same when the medicine is taken by itself. Additive interactions- when medicines work together in a positive way Synergistic effect- when two or more medicines react resulting in a greater effect than when taken alone Antagonistic interaction- when the effect of a medicine is cancelled or reduced by another medicine Tolerance- when the body becomes used to the effects and so needs more to get same results Withdrawal- when someone stops using a medicine and the body reacts to the lack of it in the system

11 Medicine Safety Always keep medicine in the original container, with the original label. Store medicine out of reach of children. If children are in the house always use the child proof caps provided. Throw out ALL medicines after their expiration dates. Know the possible side effects. Use medicine as directed and for the entire time directed.

12 Medicine Misuse Definition: using a medication in a way other than the one intended. Examples of misuse Giving your prescription to someone else Taking too much or too little of the medication Taking someone else’s medication Stopping use without informing the prescribing doctor Taking medicine longer then directed Mixing medicines without direction to do so from a doctor

13 Medicine Abuse Intentionally taking medications for nonmedical reasons. -to lose weight -to stay awake -to fit in -”pill parties” -taking someone else's prescription

14 Drug Overdose A strong sometimes fatal reaction to taking a large amount of a drug.

15 FDA (Food and Drug Administration)
Makes sure all drugs are safe to use Finds out what possible side effects there are Doesn’t regulate Herbal and Dietary Supplements Goes through clinical Trials, could still be experimental.

16 Prescription Medicines: medicines that are dispensed only with the written approval of licensed physician or nurse practitioner. Over-the-Counter (OTC): medicines you can buy without a doctor’s prescription.

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