2 MedicineDefinition: substances that, when taken internally or applied to the body, help prevent or cure a disease or other medical problemClassificationsPrevent diseaseFight pathogens(microorganisms that enter the body and attack its cells and tissues)Relieve painHelp the heart and regulate blood pressure
3 Medicines that prevent disease VaccinesContain a weakened or dead pathogen to a particular diseaseGiven to prevent one from contracting that diseaseWhen the body is exposed to the vaccine it makes antibodies against that diseaseThese antibodies stay in the body so when exposed to the real disease the body is prepared to fight it offAntitoxinsExtracts of blood fluids that contain antibodiesAct more quickly than vaccinesAre made by inoculating animals and uses their antibodiesInjected into human after a possible exposure
4 Medicines that fight pathogens AntibioticsChemical agents that destroy disease causing microorganisms but leave the patient unharmedPenicillin- discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander FlemingThey either kill the bacteria or stop it from reproducingARE NOT affective against virusesSeveral bacteria are becoming resistant to antibioticsWhen someone doesn’t take the full amount of an antibiotic, or stops taking it early, the bacteria becomes more resistant to that antibiotic
5 Medicine to relieve pain AnalgesicsOTC analgesics can be harmfulStomach irritation- ulcersThins the blood making clotting difficultDizziness and tinnitusReye’s syndrome in children (illness of brain and liver)Common OTC analgesicsAspirinIbuprofen (Advil)- anti-inflammatoryAcetaminophen (Tylenol)NarcoticsPrescription onlyCan be highly addictiveCommonly derivatives of morphine and codeine
6 Analgesics (Pain Relievers) Aspirin: relieve pain and reduce fever -Blood Thinner -upset stomach, dizziness and ringing in ears -Reye’s Syndrome (brain and liver)Recommended for your age: -AcetaminophenAnalgesics have a full range from mild to strong -Strong=Narcotics examples?
7 Managing Chronic Conditions Treat long term illnesses, maintain or restore health, offer a higher level of wellness. -Allergy Medicines: Antihistamines reduce allergy symptoms by blocking the chemical release from the immune system. Life threatening=single shot of epinephrineBody-regulating medicines: help regulate body chemistry -Insulin, Inhaler, cardiovascularAntidepressant and Antipsychotic: Help regulate brain chemistry or stabilize moods.Cancer Treatments: slow or stop the growth of the cancer cells.
8 Cardiovascular medicines Five typesBeta blockers- helps slow heart rate and lower blood pressureDiuretics- decreases water and sodium, reducing blood fluid volume, especially important after heart failureVasodilators- dilate blood vessels to increase blood and oxygen flowAntiarrhythmic- help control abnormal heart rhythmsClot- Dissolving – lower hypertension and prevents blot clotting
9 How Medicines can Enter the Body There are four ways they can enter1. oral medications (by mouth)2. topical medications (through the skin)3. Inhaled medications (breathed in through the lungs)4. Injected medications (through a needle, or bite)
10 Reactions in the body Be aware of side effects. When two medicines are taken together or taken with certain foods- the effect may not be the same when the medicine is taken by itself.Additive interactions- when medicines work together in a positive waySynergistic effect- when two or more medicines react resulting in a greater effect than when taken aloneAntagonistic interaction- when the effect of a medicine is cancelled or reduced by another medicineTolerance- when the body becomes used to the effects and so needs more to get same resultsWithdrawal- when someone stops using a medicine and the body reacts to the lack of it in the system
11 Medicine SafetyAlways keep medicine in the original container, with the original label.Store medicine out of reach of children.If children are in the house always use the child proof caps provided.Throw out ALL medicines after their expiration dates.Know the possible side effects.Use medicine as directed and for the entire time directed.
12 Medicine MisuseDefinition: using a medication in a way other than the one intended.Examples of misuseGiving your prescription to someone elseTaking too much or too little of the medicationTaking someone else’s medicationStopping use without informing the prescribing doctorTaking medicine longer then directedMixing medicines without direction to do so from a doctor
13 Medicine AbuseIntentionally taking medications for nonmedical reasons. -to lose weight -to stay awake -to fit in -”pill parties” -taking someone else's prescription
14 Drug OverdoseA strong sometimes fatal reaction to taking a large amount of a drug.
15 FDA (Food and Drug Administration) Makes sure all drugs are safe to useFinds out what possible side effects there areDoesn’t regulate Herbal and Dietary SupplementsGoes through clinical Trials, could still be experimental.
16 Prescription Medicines: medicines that are dispensed only with the written approval of licensed physician or nurse practitioner.Over-the-Counter (OTC): medicines you can buy without a doctor’s prescription.