Psychological Science Develops Behaviorism –John B. Watson –B.F. Skinner –“study of observable behavior”
Behaviorism = the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Psychology’s Biggest Question Nature – Nurture Issue –Biology versus experience –History Greeks Rene Descartes Charles Darwin –Natural selectionNatural selection
Nature-Nurture Issue = the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
Natural Selection = the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis Levels of Analysis –Biological –Psychological –Social-cultural Biopsychosocial Approach
Levels of Analysis = the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social- cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
Biopsychosocial Approach = an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social- cultural levels of analysis.
John and Biopsychosocial John, a depressed adolescent male, who finds it difficult to socialize with his peers. John's problem may be the result of any one of a number of causes. For example, injunctions may be considered one possible cause of John's depression. Injunctions may include messages regarding worthlessness and shame, distorted perceptions, fears of rejection, and inadequate communication and social skills. John's overly critical parents raised him to believe that he would never amount to anything or have any friends. 27
How it includes Biopsychosocial As John experiences distress over his negative injunctions about relationships (psychological), he “tries too hard” to make others like him, which causes his peers to distance themselves from him (social). In time, John may experience rejection and become more depressed (psychological). Berating himself (psychological), John may become less concerned with his outward appearance and hygiene (biological), which in turn may cause his peers to avoid further contact with him (social). 28
Biological Psychology (Neuroscience) = a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes. Example: Brain structure, blood chemicals and moods
Evolutionary Psychology = the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection. Example: How does evolution influence our behavior choices. Why I like long blonde hair on my girlfriends
Psychodynamic Psychology = a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders. Example: Unconscious, unfulfilled wishes make me behave the way I do.
Behavioral Psychology = the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning. Example: How we learn to fear an item. Punishment and reinforcement, modeling etc.
Cognitive Psychology = the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. Example: How we perceive and interpret the world. Information in and behavior out. Everyone hates me here and I feel sad
Humanistic Psychology = historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth. Example: I am not supported by those around me. I am not receiving unconditional positive regard
Social-Cultural Psychology = the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking. Example: I get married because my family says that is what I should do at this age.