Presentation on theme: "Homework Handout 1 – 2 – Switch the numbers for #8, 9, 10, 14, 17, 19, 20 For example, a 1 becomes a 7, a 5 becomes a 3 – Cross out #1, 2, 5, 11, and 15."— Presentation transcript:
Homework Handout 1 – 2 – Switch the numbers for #8, 9, 10, 14, 17, 19, 20 For example, a 1 becomes a 7, a 5 becomes a 3 – Cross out #1, 2, 5, 11, and 15 – these are not to be used – Add up all other numbers Psychology is NOT a Science – 15 Psychology IS a Science 105 Psychology IS a Science 105
Homework Handout 1 – 3 – Switch the numbers for #4, 6, 10, 11, 15 For example, a 0 becomes a 5, a 4 becomes a 1 – Add up the following #s 1, 4, 7, 10, 13 2, 5, 8, 11, 14 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 Irrationality (5) Irrationality (5) Rationality (25) Rationality (25) Stability (25) Stability (25) Nature (25) Nature (25) Change (5) Change (5) Nurture (5) Nurture (5)
Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science is Born Wilhelm Wundt (1879) – 1 st Psych Lab University of Leipzig, Germany – Reaction time experiment
Charles Darwin –Evolutionary Psych Ivan Pavlov –Classical Conditioning & Learning (Dogs) Sigmund Freud –Personality theorist & therapist –Psychoanalytic – unconscious conflicts –1 of 3 major forces Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science Develops
Jean Piaget –Developmental psych William James –Functionalism –Mary Whiton Calkins Margaret Floy Washburn –1 st Female PhD Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science Develops Up to the early 1900’s, Psychology was the “science of mental life.” This would change…
Behaviorism –1920s, Americans John B. Watson –Classical Conditioning B.F. Skinner –Operant Conditioning –“study of observable behavior” –2 nd major force Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science Develops Through the mid 1900s, Freudian Psychology and Behaviorism ruled. This would change in the 1960s when 2 groups rebelled against the Behaviorists… This would change in the 1960s when 2 groups rebelled against the Behaviorists… Through the mid 1900s, Freudian Psychology and Behaviorism ruled. This would change in the 1960s when 2 groups rebelled against the Behaviorists… This would change in the 1960s when 2 groups rebelled against the Behaviorists…
Humanistic psychology –Freud & Behaviorism too limiting –Focused on personal growth (+ environment) & needs for love & acceptance –Carl Rogers / Abraham Maslow Cognitive (Neuroscience) –Study internal thought processes scientifically to find out how our minds perceive, process and remember information Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science Develops
Psychology Defined Psychology – Science http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_ window.html?pid=1498http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_ window.html?pid=1498 – Scientific Study of: Behavior Mental processes
Perspectives Quiz Applying the Perspectives – Case Study #1– A couple date, fall in love, get married, and have kids. – Casey Study #2 – Come up with a personality characteristic (i.e. procrastination, perfectionism, etc.) Attempt to explain the behavior from each perspectives
Four Big Ideas in Psychology BIG IDEA #1 - Critical Thinking –Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments & conclusions –Examines assumptions, uncovers hidden values, weighs evidence, and assesses conclusion –Science supports this type of thinking –Examples Loss of brain tissue early in life, Newborns & mother’s odor & voice, Electric shocks & depression Sleepwalkers & dreams, low/high self-esteem, opposites attract?
Four Big Ideas in Psychology BIG IDEA #2 – Biopsychosocial Approach –Integrated approach that incorporates different but complementary views from biological, psychological, and social-cultural perspectives. –Nature – Nurture Issue is part of this Controversy over relative contributions of genes and experience Questions –Are differences in intelligence, personality, etc. due to our heredity or our environment? –Is depression a disorder of the brain or disorder of thought? Twin Studies
Four Big Ideas in Psychology BIG IDEA #3 –Dual Processing (Two-Track Mind) The principle that information is simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks –Conscious Mind feels like our body’s chief executive, but in reality we are automatically processing large amounts of information without our awareness –Case Study – D.F. Brain Damage Visual Perception vs. Visual Action (Brain Areas)
Four Big Ideas in Psychology BIG IDEA #4 – –Psychology Explores Human Strengths & Challenges –Much of psychology’s history has been focused on understanding and treating troubled states (depression, abuse, anxiety, etc.) –Positive Psychology Scientific Study of human functioning with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities thrive. Building a “Good and Meaningful Life” 3 Pillars – Positive emotions, positive character, positive groups, communities, and culture
The Biopsychosocial Approach: Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis Levels of Analysis – Biological – Psychological – Social-cultural Biopsychosocial Approach
The Biopsychosocial Approach: Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
Empiricism = the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.
Structuralism = an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.
Functionalism = a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Experimental Psychology = the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method.
Behaviorism = the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Humanistic Psychology = historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth.
Cognitive Neuroscience = the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
Psychology = the science of behavior and mental processes.
Nature-Nurture Issue = the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
Natural Selection = the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Levels of Analysis = the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social- cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
Biopsychosocial Approach = an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social- cultural levels of analysis.
Biological Psychology = a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes.
Evolutionary Psychology = the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection.
Psychodynamic Psychology = a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.
Behavioral Psychology = the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.
Cognitive Psychology = the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Counseling Psychology = a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, and marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
Clinical Psychology = a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
Psychiatry = a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.