4 Prescientific Psychology Ancient Greek philosophersSocrates & Plato: logic basisMind separate from body & continues on after death.Knowledge is innate (born with us)Aristotle: data basisObserved principles from observationsClaimed knowledge grows with experiences
5 Prescientific Psychology(cont) 1600’s philosophy and theoryRene Descartes (French philosopher)Agreed with Socrates & Plato with innate ideas and mind being separate from the body (dualism).Animal spirits flowed through the fluid in the brain and nerves, eventually creating memories.Francis Bacon (English philosopher)Presented the idea that the human mind always tries to make patterns of random events. (Novum Organuum)Made an observation that we remember events to confirm our beliefs.John Locke (British political philosopher)Mind at birth is a tabula rasa (blank slate)Helped originate the idea of empiricism (science should rely on observation and experimentation.)
6 Psychological Science is Born Wilhelm WundtCreated the first experimental apparatus at the University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879.Measured awareness based on hearing and then perceiving of a telegraph sound.Wundt’s students were the first psychology graduate students.Branches of psychology soon were bornStructuralismFunctionalismBehaviorism
7 Thinking about the Mind’s Structure Edward Bradford TitchenerWundt’s student receiving his Ph.D. in 1892 and joined Cornell UniversityIntroduced StructuralismAttempted to engage people in self-reflective introspection (looking inward) while reporting elements of their experience.Had the view that “there is one thing, and only one in the whole universe which we know more about than we could learn from external observation…we have, so to speak, inside information” (ourselves)Problems:Introspection required smart, verbal people.Results varied from person to person and were unreliable.Often, we don’t understand why we feel or do the thingswe do.
8 Thinking about the Mind’s Functions William JamesConsider evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings.The nose smells, the brain thinksBelieved thinking was adaptive/helped humans survive.Consciousness is a function in which we consider our past,present and future.Most known for his teaching at HarvardAdmitted Mary Calkins (first female) into his graduate seminar,where all the males dropped out.Made the first psychology text book called Principles of Psychology, which took him 12 years (10 longer than he anticipated.)Mary CalkinsTutored her exclusively, but she was refused a degree by Harvard, but was offered a degree by Radcliffe instead; she refused it.Went on to become a memory researcher and the first APA female president in 1905.Margaret Floy WashburnBecame the first female psychology studentBecame the second female APA president in 1921.Barred from joining the organization of experimental psychologist, though her adviser Titchener founded it.
10 Psychological Science Develops Psychology developed from established fields of philosophy and biology.Wundt: philosopher and physiologistJames: American philosopherPavlov: Russian physiologistFreud: Austrian physicianPiaget: Swiss biologistIn the 1920’s, psychology was defined as “the science of mental life.”Wundt, Titchener, James, and FreudBetween the 1920’s and 1960’s, psychology was redefined as “the scientific study of observable behavior.”Watson & Skinner (Behaviorists)The 1960’s and beyond, many rebelled against Freudian psychology and behaviorism.Rogers, Maslow (Huminists)Also in the 1960’s, the cognitive revolution started which led to cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience.Today, psychology is defined as the science of behavior and mental processes.Behavior: meaning what an organism does or observable actionMental processes: meaning the internal subjective experiences we infer from behavior
12 Psychology’s Biggest Question Nature-nurture issueVery old concept, yet still debated today.Natural selection: DarwinDarwin’s idea of selective traits which enable an organism to survive.Believed that natural selection occurs with both animal traits and animal behaviors.
13 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis PsychodynamicBiopsychosocial approachBehavioralCognitiveBiologicalSocial-culturalEvolutionary
14 Levels of AnalysisThe levels of analysis are differing complimentary views for analyzing any given phenomenon.Biological influences:Natural selection of adaptive traitsGenetic predispositions responding to environmentBrain mechanismsHormonal influencesPsychological Influences:Learned fears and other learned expectationsEmotional responsesCognitive processing and perceptual interpretationsSocial-cultural influences:Presence of othersCultural, societal, and family expectationsPeer and other group influencesCompelling models (such as in the media)