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Myers’ Psychology for AP®, 2e

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1 Myers’ Psychology for AP®, 2e
David G. Myers PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek Germantown High School Worth Publishers, © 2014 AP® is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board ®, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

2 Unit 1: Psychology’s History and Approaches

3 Unit 01 - Overview Psychology’s History?
Psychology’s Big Issues and Approaches Careers in Psychology Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.

4 Module 01: Psychology’s History


6 Psychology’s Roots

7 Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology
Ancient Greeks: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle Rene Descartes Francis Bacon John Locke Tabula Rasa (blank slate) Empiricism

8 Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science is Born
Wilhelm Wundt (1879) University of Leipzig Reaction time experiment G. Stanley Hall

9 Psychology’s Roots Thinking About the Mind’s Structure
Edward Titchener Structuralism introspection

10 Psychology’s Roots Thinking About the Mind’s Function
William James Functionalism

11 Psychology’s Roots Thinking About the Mind’s Function
Mary Calkins Margaret Floy Washburn Experimental psychology

12 Psychological Science Develops

13 Psychological Science Develops
Sigmund Freud

14 Psychological Science Develops
Behaviorism John B. Watson Rosalie Raynor

15 Psychological Science Develops
Behaviorism B.F. Skinner “study of observable behavior” conditioning

16 Psychological Science Develops
Humanistic psychology Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow Cognitive Neuroscience

17 Psychological Science Develops
Psychology Science Behavior Mental processes

18 Module 02: Psychology’s Big Issues and Approaches


20 Psychology’s Biggest Question

21 Psychology’s Biggest Question
Nature – Nurture Issue Biology versus experience History Greeks Rene Descartes Charles Darwin Natural selection

22 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis

23 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
Biological Psychological Social-cultural Biopsychosocial Approach

24 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis

25 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis

26 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis

27 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis

28 Psychological Approaches/Perspectives
Behavioral perspective Biological perspective Cognitive perspective Evolutionary perspective Humanistic perspective Psychodynamic perspective Social-cultural perspective









37 Psychology’s Subfields

38 Psychology’s Subfields
Psychometrics Basic Research Biological psychologists Developmental psychologists Cognitive psychologists Educational psychologists Personality psychologists Social psychologists

39 Psychology’s Subfields
Applied Research Industrial/organizational psychologists Human factors psychologists Counseling psychologists Clinical psychologists Psychiatrists Positive psychology Community psychologists

40 Module 03: Careers in Psychology


42 Basic Research Subfields

43 Basic Research Subfields
Cognitive psychologists Developmental psychologists Educational psychologists Experimental psychologists Psychometric and Quantitative Psychologists Social psychologists

44 Applied Research Subfields

45 Applied Research Subfields
Forensic psychologists Health psychologists Industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists Neuropsychologists Rehabilitation psychologists School psychologists Sport psychologists

46 The Helping Professions

47 The Helping Professions
Clinical psychologists Community psychologists Counseling psychologists

48 The End

49 Definition Slides

50 Empiricism = the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.

51 Structuralism = early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchner; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind.

52 Functionalism = a school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.

53 Experimental Psychology
= the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method.

54 Behaviorism = the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

55 Humanistic Psychology
= a historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people.

56 Cognitive Neuroscience
= the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).

57 Psychology = the science of behavior and mental processes.

58 Nature-Nurture Issue = the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.

59 Natural Selection = the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

60 Levels of Analysis = the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.

61 Biopsychosocial Approach
= an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.

62 Behavioral Psychology
= the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.

63 Biological Psychology
= the scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes. Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists.

64 Cognitive Psychology = the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

65 Evolutionary Psychology
= the study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection.

66 Psychodynamic Psychology
= a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.

67 Social-Cultural Psychology
= the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.

68 Psychometrics = the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.

69 Basic Research = pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

70 Developmental Psychology
= a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

71 Educational Psychology
= the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.

72 Personality Psychology
= the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

73 Social Psychology = the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

74 Applied Research = scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

75 Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychologists
= the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.

76 Human Factors Psychologists
= an I/O subfield that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.

77 Counseling Psychology
= a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, and marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.

78 Clinical Psychology = a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treat people with psychological disorders.

79 Psychiatry = a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.

80 Positive Psychology = the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.

81 Community Psychology = a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups.

82 Testing Effect = enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.

83 SQ3R = a study method incorporating five steps; Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review.

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