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Myers’ Psychology for AP

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1 Myers’ Psychology for AP
David G. Myers Worth Publishers, © 2010

2 Unit 1: Psychology’s History and Approaches
What is Psychology? Contemporary Psychology

3 What is Psychology?


5 Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology
Ancient Greeks Socrates (knowledge is innate) Plato (like Socrates, used logic & opinions) Aristotle (instead, derived principles from observation) How did each view knowledge?

6 Psychology’s Roots Prescientific Psychology
Rene Descartes (how the immaterial mind and physical body communicate) Francis Bacon (human understanding and experience) John Locke (knowledge originates in experience) empiricism

7 Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science is Born
Wilhelm Wundt (1879) Established the first psychology laboratory Hear sound, press key

8 Psychology developed into three different branches, or schools of thought
structuralism (looking inward, self reflect) functionalism (how functions enable use to adapt, survive, and flourish) behaviorism (observable action)

9 Psychology’s Roots Thinking About the Mind’s STRUCTURE (1890s)
Edward Titchener Unreliable: vary from person to person Don’t know why we feel and do what we do Recollection errors Introspection Phased out: opinion, verify? Apple example

10 Psychology’s Roots Thinking About the Mind’s FUNCTION (1890s)
William James (different from Titchener how?) Disconnected parts vs. evolved functions Consciousness serves as a function Ties to Natural selection: adaptation, (ideas, emotions, can extend beyond physical traits) Showing emotions (frowning example)

11 Unit 1 Pop Quiz (get a piece of paper)
A test of how you react to unexpected situations Q#1: What did you experience when you learned of the “pop” quiz? Q#2: Which thoughts and emotions were helpful toward performance? harmful? Q#3: What steps might you take to overcome anxiety when faced with unexpected situations?

12 Exercise: Psychologist as Scientist (p. 6)
List three adjectives that describe a typical scientist. List three adjectives that describe a typical psychologist.

13 Science: Where is Psychology?
art chemistry ___1_________2_________3_________4_________5_________6_________7___ philosophy physics

14 Psychological Science Develops (1960s)
Behaviorists rooted in observation-B.F. Skinner Can record people’s behavior as they respond to different situations Reinforces positive or negative behavior

15 + GET something - REMOVE something

16 “you be the parent” (e.g., chores, homework, curfew, etc.)
Behavior Encouraged Behavior Suppressed Stimulus presented + (get) Stimulus removed or withheld (remove)

17 Psychological Science Develops 1960s
Humanistic psychology (Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow) Importance of environmental influences on our growth potential and having our needs satisfied


19 Psychological Science Develops 1960s
Cognitive Neuroscience: ways we perceive, process, and remember information (1960s) This approach has led us to understand and treat disorders like depression Requires thinking

20 Example: Cut off by speeding, reckless motorist!
Think / Feel / Do Stressful Peaceful 1 2 Sinful (Old Adam) Godly ( New Man ) 5 6 3 8th Comm. Wronged Thought Feeling Action 7 4 Accepting / Peaceful Anger Christian LOVE REVENGE! Example: Cut off by speeding, reckless motorist!

21 Psychological Science Develops
Psychology Behavior-? mental processes-?

22 Contemporary Psychology

23 Psychology’s Biggest Question
Nature-Nurture Issue biology vs. experience history Charles Darwin natural selection

24 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
Levels of Analysis: Biological, psychological, & social-cultural Together, they form an integrated biopsychosocial approach Complement one another, have their own limits, ask different questions

25 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis

26 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis

27 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis

28 Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
question on bottom p. 11

29 Psychological Approaches/Perspectives
how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences how natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts how we learn observable responses how we encode, process, store and retrieve information how we meet our needs for love and acceptance, and achieve self-fulfillment How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cutlures biological evolutionary psychodynamic behavioral cognitive humanistic social-cultural

30 Psychology’s Subfields
Psychometrics-measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits difference between basic, applied, and clinical science research?

31 basic research investigates persistent traits
studies changing abilities throughout the life span explores how we view and affect one another studies influences on teaching and learning explores link between brain and behavior biological psychology developmental psychology educational psychology personality psychology social psychology

32 applied research industrial/organizational psychology
human factors psychology counseling psychology clinical psychology psychiatry helps people cope with adjustments, challenges, and crises used in the workplace to help companies select and train employees medical doctors who may prescribe drugs in treatment assesses and treats mental, emotional, and behavior disorders focuses on interaction of people, machines, and physical environments

33 Clinical science and applications
Counseling-help people cope with challenges and crises Clinical psychologists-assess and treat mental, emotional, or behavior disorders Psychiatrists-medical doctors

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