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Trotter 2012-2013.  A system is a group of parts that work together as a whole.  Open system: a system in which both matter and energy can enter or.

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Presentation on theme: "Trotter 2012-2013.  A system is a group of parts that work together as a whole.  Open system: a system in which both matter and energy can enter or."— Presentation transcript:

1 Trotter 2012-2013

2  A system is a group of parts that work together as a whole.  Open system: a system in which both matter and energy can enter or leave.  Closed system: a system in which only energy is free to enter or leave; matter is confined within it; an example is a closed soda bottle

3  All systems on Earth are OPEN.  However, Earth itself is said to be a closed system.

4  Atmosphere  Geosphere  Hydrosphere  Cryosphere  Biosphere

5  The envelope of gases that forms Earth’s outermost layer.  It is made up of:  78% Nitrogen  21% Oxygen  1% Other  The system contains all of Earth’s weather and climate. How does this affect Earth’s topography?

6 THE ADIRONDACKS  All of Earth’s mass is found in Earth’s solid rocks and metals.  Three main parts:  -metal core, solid middle layer, and a rocky outer layer.  All of Earth’s surface is considered the Geosphere.

7  75% of the Earth is covered in water.  Hydrosphere includes: oceans, rivers, lakes, groundwater, and water vapor.  97% Salt Water!  3% Fresh water

8  Consists of all the water in the form of ice on Earth.  Includes: glaciers, snowfields, ice caps, ice sheets, sea ice, and frozen ground.  How does this affect Earth’s Surface?

9 BOUYE  All living organisms on the Earth make up this sphere.  This includes:  Animals, bacteria, invertebrates, plants, fungus, Bouye and us!



12  The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).  The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space.

13  Heated by transfer of heat to surface. This is where we live.  Temperature decreases with height.

14 SEPTEMBER 2011  Temperature increases with height due to increased absorption of ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer, which restricts turbulence and mixing.  Ozone O3

15  temperature decreases with increasing height

16  The outermost layer  Primarily Helium and Hydrogen  Fewer molecules with increasing altitude


18  Troposphere  Stratosphere  Mesosphere  Thermosphere  Exosphere  Stratification  Conduction  Convection  Radiation


20  Sunlight must pass through the atmosphere before it reaches Earth’s surface.  Some sunlight is absorbed or reflected by the atmosphere before it can reach the surface. The rest of the sunlight passes through the atmosphere to Earth’s surface.



23  Sun to Earth: Radiation  Hot sand to foot: Conduction  Wind currents: convection  The Earth uses all 3 forms!

24 Trotter 2011-2012

25  Water Cycle  Nitrogen Cycle  Carbon Cycle



28  Evaporation is when the sun heats up water in rivers or lakes or the ocean and turns it into vapor or steam. The water vapor or steam leaves the river, lake or ocean and goes into the air.

29  Water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into liquid, forming clouds. This is called condensation.  You can see the same sort of thing at home... pour a glass of cold water on a hot day and watch what happens. Water forms on the outside of the glass. That water didn't somehow leak through the glass! It actually came from the air. Water vapor in the warm air, turns back into liquid when it touches the cold glass.

30  Precipitation occurs when so much water has condensed that the air cannot hold it anymore. The clouds get heavy and water falls back to the earth in the form of rain, hail, sleet or snow.

31 When water falls back to earth as precipitation, it may fall back in the oceans, lakes or rivers or it may end up on land. When it ends up on land, it will either soak into the earth and become part of the “ground water” that plants and animals use to drink or it may run over the soil and collect in the oceans, lakes or rivers where the cycle starts

32  Ocean Acidification: global warming of the ocean. Excess of CO2 being absorbed.  Global Warming: excess of CO2 in the atmosphere causing ice caps to melt at a faster rate.  CO2= pollution

33  N absorbed by plants  We eat plants  Animals eat plants  We use the bathroom ..and return the N back to Earth!  component of the proteins that build cell material and plant tissue.

34 WHERE IS CARBON FOUND? Exhaling Pollution Dying animals Plants


36  Know the difference!  Temp: how rapid or slowly the molecules move around. Faster moving molecules= a higher tempature  Heat: TRANSFER of energy ( radiation, conduction, and convection)

37  Degrees Fahrenheit  Degrees Celsius  Kelvins

38  Remember: the reason why it is cooler at the top of a mountain than at earth’s surface is because Earth’s surface is absorbing all of the sun’s radiation therefore becoming a heat source!

39  LCL ( Lifted condensation level): the height at which condensation occurs.  Air above the LCL cools more slowly than air below the LCL.

40  Temperature to which air must be cooled to reach saturation.  The dew point temperature is the temperature at which the air can no longer hold all of its H20(g) and some vapor must condense into liquid water.  Dew Point is always lower than or equal to the air temperature.

41  As T goes, P goes.  As T goes, D goes.

42  Wind changes with height in the atmosphere.  It is constantly disrupted by the friction that results from contact with trees, building and Earth’s surface.  So…would wind blow more strongly over the ocean or across the dunes?

43  Is the amount of water vapor..H20(g) in the air.

44  The ratio of H20(g) in a volume of air relative to how much H20(g) it can actually hold.


46  Clouds form when warm, moist air rises, expands, and cools in a convection current.  Many particles are used to make clouds including: dust, sea salt, and dirt.  Remember Dew point: is the point of condensation/saturatio n!

47  How rapidily any given air mass cools determines its stability.  ALL RISING AIR EXPANDS AND COOLS!  The ability of an air mass to resist rising.

48  As H20(g) in the air condenses, energy is released!  It doesn't’t just go away….it is stored as Latent Heat!

49  Orographic lifting  And when 2 air masses of different temperatures meet.

50 CIRRUS high clouds, whispy and stringy

51  Puffy, lumpy looking clouds  Middle clouds

52  Sheets of clouds  Middle clouds

53  Low, gray rain clouds

54  Orographic lifting  Latent heat  Stability  Types of clouds: pg 288

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