Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Earth Science 2013-2014 The Atmosphere Chapter 11 Earth Science 2013-2014."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 11 Earth Science 2013-2014 The AtmosphereChapter 11Earth Science
2 Atmospheric Composition Ancient Greeks believed that air was an element that could not be broken down.We now know that air is made of a combination of many gases.These gases form Earth’s atmosphere.
3 Atmospheric Composition 99% of the atmosphere is made of nitrogen and oxygen.1% is everything else: argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases
4 Key Atmospheric GasesThe amount of water vapor at any given time or place changes constantly.The percentage changes with the seasons, the altitude of a particular mass of air, and with the surface features beneath the air.
5 Atmospheric Composition The percentages of nitrogen and oxygen are important for life.78% nitrogen21% oxygen1% everything else
6 Key Atmospheric GasesThe level of carbon dioxide and water vapor regulate the amount of energy the atmosphere absorbs.Water is the only substance in the atmosphere that exists in three states: solid, liquid, and gas.When water changes state, heat is absorbed or released, which leads to weather and climate.
7 Key Atmospheric Gases Dust and salt Ice Dust is carried into the atmosphere by wind.Salt is picked up from ocean spray.Both play a role in cloud formation.IceThird solid found in the atmosphere in the form of hail and snow.
8 OzoneA gas formed by the addition of a third oxygen atom to an oxygen molecule.Exists in small quantities mainly in a layer well above Earth’s surface.Absorbs UV radiation from the sun.It is thinning.
9 Structure of the Atmosphere exospherethermospheremesospherestratospheretroposphere
10 Lower Atmospheric Layers TroposphereLayer closest to Earth’s surface.Contains most of the mass of the atmosphere.General decrease in temperature from bottom to top.Upper limit – tropopause – varies in height from around 16 km at the tropics to 9 km or less at the poles.
11 Lower Atmospheric Layers StratosphereMade up primarily of concentrated ozone.Ozone absorbs more UV radiation than air, so the stratosphere is heated.Temperature gradually increases to the top of the layer.Upper limit – stratopause – located about 50 km above Earth’s surface.
13 Upper Atmospheric Layers ThermosphereContains a tiny portion of the atmosphere’s mass.Temperature increases with height to more than 1000°C.Molecules are so far apart that it would not feel warm to a human.
14 Upper Atmospheric Layers ExosphereOutermost layer of Earth’s atmosphere.Light gases (low mass) are found here – helium and hydrogen.No clear boundary between the exosphere and space.Fewer and fewer molecules until you are in space.
15 Solar Fundamentals Radiation The transfer of energy through space by visible light, UV radiation, and other forms of electromagnetic waves.All substances with temperatures above absolute zero emit radiation.About 35% is reflected into space.About 15% is absorbed by the atmosphere.Only about 50% is absorbed by Earth’s surface.
16 Solar Fundamentals Radiation Different areas absorb energy and heat up at different rates.Does not heat air directly.Air is heated by conduction and convection.
17 Solar Fundamentals Conduction The transfer of energy that occurs when molecules collide.Example: Put a pot of water on the stove. The element heats the lower molecules which then heat the molecules above them.Substances MUST be in contact with one another.Affects only a very thin layer near Earth’s surface.
18 Solar Fundamentals Convection The transfer of energy by the flow of a heated substance.Hot air rises, cools, falls, heats, rises.Over and over again.
19 Temperature vs. Heat Temperature A measure of how rapidly or slowly molecules move around.More molecules or faster-moving molecules in a given space generate a higher temperature.Fewer molecules or slower-moving molecules in a given space generate a lower temperature.
20 Temperature vs. Heat Heat The transfer of energy that occurs because of a difference in temperature between substances.The direction of heat flow depends on temperature.Heat flows from hot to cold.
21 Temperature vs. Heat Measuring Temperature Degrees Fahrenheit (°F) Degrees Celsius (°C)Kelvin (K)SI unitNo negatives. 0 K is absolute zero.
22 Temperature vs. Heat Dew Point Condensation The temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure to reach saturation.Saturation – the point at which the air holds as much water vapor as it possibly can.CondensationWhen matter changes state from a gas to a liquid.Water falls as rain.
23 Vertical Temperature Changes Temperature is cooler at higher elevations (i.e. mountaintop).Lifted condensation level – the height at which condensation occurs.Adiabatic lapse rate – rate at which unsaturated air to which no heat is added or removed will cool.
24 Air Pressure and Density You are used to the pressure that the air exerts on you.Fish are adapted to live under the pressure of the water.Pressure increases with depth in the ocean.Pressure decreases with height on land.
25 Air Pressure and Density Proportional to the number of particles of air occupying a particular space.Varies with temperature:TemperaturePressureDensityIncreasesDecreasesincreases
26 Temperature Inversions An increase in temperature with height in an atmospheric layer.Keeps the warm air lower and allows the cooler air to rise.Can lead to pollution problems.Has a great effect on weather conditions.
27 WindAir moves in response to unbalanced heating and cooling of Earth’s surface.Imbalances create areas of high and low pressure.Wind moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.Changes with height in the atmosphere.
28 Relative Humidity Humidity Relative humidity The amount of water vapor in the air.Relative humidityThe ratio of water vapor in a volume of air relative to how much water vapor that volume of air is capable of holding.Varies with temperatureWarm air is capable of holding more moisture than cool air.Expressed as a percentage.
29 Cloud FormationClouds form when warm, moist air rises, expands, and cools in a convection current.As the air reaches its dew point, the water vapor in the air condenses around condensation nuclei.Condensation nuclei – small particles in the atmosphere around which cloud droplets can form.
30 Cloud FormationClouds can form when wind encounters a mountain and the air has no place to go but up.Orographic liftingWarm air cools, water vapor condenses, and a cloud forms.
31 Cloud Formation Stability The ability of an air mass to resist rising. Determined by how rapidly any given mass of air cools.Temperature of surrounding air masses and the air mass itself also determine cooling rate.
32 Cloud Formation Latent Heat The energy that is stored in water vapor and is not released into the air until condensation occurs.When condensation occurs, latent heat is released and warms the air.Water vapor holds lots of energy.
33 Types of Clouds Classified by their altitude and shape. Developed by English naturalist Luke Howard in 1803
34 Types of Clouds Height Cirro Alto Strato Describes high clouds with bases starting above 6000 mAltoDescribes middle clouds with bases between 2000 m to 6000 m.StratoRefers to low clouds below 2000 m.
35 Types of Clouds Shape Cirrus Cumulus Stratus Nimbus Latin meaning: “hair.”Describes wispy, stringy clouds.CumulusLatin meaning: “pile or heap.”Describes puffy, lumpy-looking clouds.StratusLatin meaning: “layer.”Describes featureless sheets of clouds.NimbusLatin meaning: “cloud.”Describes low, gray rain clouds.
36 Cloud Formation Low Clouds Middle Clouds Stratocumulus or layered cumulus – covers much or all of the sky in a given areaStratus – i.e. lifted fogMiddle CloudsAltocumulus – resemble white fish scalesAltostratus – dark, but thin veils of clouds
37 Cloud Formation High Clouds Clouds of Vertical Development Cirrus – wispy, indistinct appearanceCirrostratus – continuous layer – transparent to very denseClouds of Vertical DevelopmentClouds can grow vertically if the air that makes up a cumulus cloud is unstable enough.Cloud is warmer than the air and thus rises.Can reach 18,000 m with the top part frozen.
38 Precipitation Coalescence Precipitation The process in which cloud droplets collide and join together to form a larger droplet.PrecipitationIncludes all forms or water, both liquid and solid.Rain, snow, sleet, and hail.
39 The Water CycleThe constant movement of water between the atmosphere and Earth’s surface.Receives its energy from the sun.Causes liquid water to change into a gas evaporation.Evaporated water rises into the atmosphere.Water vapor cools and condenses to form clouds.Water droplets combine and falls to Earth as precipitation.
40 The Water Cycle Condensation Evaporation Precipitation Runoff GroundwaterRunoffEvaporationCondensation