2 1. Weather Created by the movement of air and water The sun, and uneven solar heating, drives this movementOccurs in the troposphere, the lowest level of the atmosphereThe atmospheric conditions at a particular location on a particular dayDetermines Climate
3 2. Climatethe weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period:"our cold, wet climate“Weather over an extended period.
5 4. ConvectionHeat is transferred by the moving of particles/molecules from one place to another
6 5. RadiationTransfer of thermal energy by the release of a photon from the Electromagnetic Spectrum
7 6. AlbedoAlbedo is a Latin word which means whiteness. Albedo is the ratio of light reflected by an object compared to the total amount of light it recieves.
8 7. Ozone Layera layer in the earth's stratosphere at an altitude of about 6.2 miles (10 km) containing a high concentration of ozone, which absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth from the sun.
9 8. MeteorologistMeteorologists are scientists who study the weather, including clouds.
10 9. FrontA front is a boundary or transition zone formed when two air masses that have different temperatures and densities meet each other.
12 1. Climate vs. WeatherWEATHER is the short term conditions of the atmosphere at aspecific time and place in terms of temperature, pressure, precipitation, wind speed, cloud cover (etc…)CLIMATE is a long term average of temperature, pressure, precipitation, wind speed, (etc.) for a particular region on Earth.Weather refers to short term conditions in a specific area. Climate refers to the long term conditions in an area.20 degrees Celsius, Sunny. – Weather
13 2. List the 5 layers of the atmosphere in order. Order of LayerName of Layer5Exosphere 4Thermosphere 3Mesosphere2Stratosphere1Troposphere Earth
14 3. The Earth’s Radiation Budget is how much of the sun’s energy is absorbed by the earth versus how much of it is reflected back out to space.Approximately 71% is absorbed in total ( )
15 4.Albedo A white object reflects light more/absorbs less A black object reflects less light/absorbs more
16 5/6 What are Clouds? Clouds are made of water. They are either made up of small liquid water drops or tiny ice crystals.The two items required for clouds to form are water vapour and condensation nuclei
17 1. Items of the Climate system. Name of SphereAtmosphereHydrosphereLithosphereCryosphereBiosphereWhat is it?Air WaterLandIceLiving thingsHow does it affect Climate(and thus weather)?Keeps Earth warm with the Greenhouse Effect. Is where weather occurs Water holds heat & keeps temperature relatively constant. Evaporates/Condenses in water cycleDifferent surfaces affect how sunlight is absorbed and this affects temperature Its high reflectivity affects temperature.Amount of ice/water is tied to water cycle Produce heat. Take in and give off water so part of the water cycle
18 2. Three Mechanisms Conduction Transfers heat by direct contact Matter touching matterCan occur between any state of matter: solid, liquid or gasMetals are good conductors of heatBad conductors include wood, rubber, glassExample: Heat transfers directly from the element of a stove to a metal potConvectionHeat is transferred by the moving of particles/molecules from one place to anotherHotter particles move further apart and riseCooler particles move closer together and fallTransfer is therefore vertical (up & down)Only occurs in liquids and gases (fluids)Example: Currents are created
19 RadiationTransfer of thermal energy by the release of a photon from the Electromagnetic SpectrumHeat is transferred through spaceElectromagnetic (EM) waves from the sun can collide with matter of all typesThe EM waves are converted to heat when they collide with matterDarker and denser objects absorb EM waves faster
20 3. The albedo of clouds Clouds affect the albedo of the Earth Clouds reflect more sunlight back to space than blue skyThe albedo of a cloud depends on many factors including:height of the cloudoverall size of the cloudnumber of water droplets inside the cloudThe color of a cloud, from bright white to dark grey, depends on the number, size and color of water droplets in the cloud.
21 Albedo of Clouds Cont’d Big droplets have a large surface area and reflect more light than small droplets.Large numbers of water droplets leads to bright white clouds.If you are under a big cumulonimbus cloud, it's dark out because the sunlight can't pass easily through the clouds.From space, however, the same cloud would look bright white because it actually has a high albedo.In contrast, a cirrus cloud is nearly transparent to sunlight but looks grey from space because it has a low albedo.
24 5. There are several ways that a parcel air can be forced to rise: 1. Surface Heating – the sun warms the air and then the warm air rises because it is less dense.Also called Convective or Convection Lifting
25 2. Mountains – air is forced upwards as it runs into the higher terrain. Also called Orographic Lifting
26 3. Fronts - When an air mass of one temperature meets another, the warmer air mass will rise over the cooler air mass. (Frontal Lifting)4. Air Pressure - When an air mass moves into a lower pressure area, the air will force the air that was there before, upwards. (Convergence Lifting)