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The Atmosphere Basic Structure.

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Presentation on theme: "The Atmosphere Basic Structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Atmosphere Basic Structure

2 Composition Combination of many gases Hydrogen, Oxone, Xenon
Nitrogen - 78% Oxygen – 21% Water Vapor – 0% to 4% Argon – 0.93% Carbon Dioxide – 0.03% Neon, Helium, Methane, Krypton, – 0.01% Hydrogen, Oxone, Xenon

3 Key Atmospheric Gases Amount of nitrogen and oxygen are critical
Any significant change would end life on Earth Water vapor Helps with energy regulation Exists as solid, liquid and gas Carbon dioxide Ozone Ultraviolet (UV) radiation shield

4 Atmospheric Structure
Lower Atmospheric Layers Troposphere Closest to Earth’s surface Holds most of the atmosphere’s mass Most weather occurs here Gets colder as you get higher From 9km (poles) to 16km (tropics) high Stratosphere Mostly made of ozone (O3) Gets warmer as you get higher Top of layer is about 50km above the Earth’s surface

5 Atmospheric Structure
Upper Atmospheric Layers Mesosphere Gets colder as you get higher Top of the layer is around 100km above Earth’s surface Thermosphere Holds a small part of the atmosphere’s mass Gets warmer as you go higher (can exceed 1000oC) Top layer is around 500km above Earth’s surface Ionosphere – contains electrically charged particles Exosphere Outer most layer of Earth’s atmosphere Contains light gases Hydrogen (H) & Helium (He)

6 Solar Fundamentals The sun is the source of all energy in the atmosphere Sun’s energy is transferred in 3 ways: Radiation – through visible light, ultraviolet (UV) radiation & other forms of electromagnetic waves Conduction – passed from one molecule to the next; must be touching Convection – flow of a heated substance

7 Diagrams Structure of the Atmosphere Solar Radiation
pg. 273 Solar Radiation pg.275 Energy in Earth’s Atmosphere pg. 276

8 State of the Atmosphere
Temperature and Pressure

9 Temperature or Heat Temperature Heat
How fast or slow molecules move around More molecules = higher temperature Faster moving molecules = higher temperature Heat Transfer of energy between substances Flows from warmer to cooler Fuels atmospheric processes

10 Measuring Temperature
Fahrenheit (oF) Water boils at 212oF Water freezes at 32oF Absolute Zero at -523oF Celsius (oC) Water boils at 100oC Water freezes at 0oC Absolute Zero at -273oC Kelvin (K) Water boils at 373 K Water freezes at 273 K Absolute Zero at 0K

11 Atmospheric Temperature Changes
Dew Point Temperature that air must cool to at constant pressure to reach saturation Saturation is when air is holding as much water as possible Air must be saturated for condensation to occur Lifted Condensation Level (LCL) Height at which air has cooled enough for condensation to occur Point at which clouds form

12 Air Pressure and Density
Air is denser and has higher pressure closer to the Earth’s surface Temperature – Pressure – Density Relationship T P T P Temperature Inversion - a pocket of warmer air in between cooler air T D

13 Wind Cool air sinks because it is more dense
Forces warm, less dense air upwards Wind moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure High and low pressure areas form due to uneven heating of Earth’s surface

14 Relative Humidity Amount of water vapor in a volume of air relative to how much water vapor the volume of air can hold Warm air can hold more water vapor Expressed as a percent

15 Moisture in the Atmosphere

16 Cloud Formation Warm, less-dense air rises, expands and cools in a convection current As the air reaches its dew point, water vapor condenses around condensation nuclei (sea salt, dust) Can also form from orographic lifting Wind encounters a mountain and is forced up Collision of air masses of different temperatures

17 Stability and Latent Heat
Stability – when an air mass resists rising Can become unstable if the air is cooler than the surface beneath it Latent heat – energy stored in water vapor Released as water vapor condenses Warms the atmosphere This can give energy to a storm and make it more intense

18 Types of Clouds Cirro –above 6000m Cirrus – wispy, stringy
HEIGHT SHAPE Cirro –above 6000m Cirrus – wispy, stringy Cummulus – puffy, Alto – m lumpy looking Stratus - featureless Strato – below 2000m sheets Nimbus – low, grey Fog – on the ground rain clouds

19 Low Clouds Form from intense heating
Summer sun shining on dark fields Air expands and rises, then begins to cool At LCL condensation occurs and a cloud forms If the cloud stay warmer than the surrounding air it will continue to grow If not it will flatten and be spread out by wind stratocumulus, layered cumulus, stratus

20 Middle Clouds Altocumulus, altostratus
Can be a mix of liquid water and ice crystals Usually layered

21 High Clouds Cirrus, cirrostratus Made of ice crystals
Indistinct, continuous layer that sometimes covers the sky

22 Vertical Development Clouds
A cumulus cloud that starts as a low cloud and continues to grow through the middle heights and beyond Becomes a huge cumulonimbus cloud with an anvil shaped top Produce thunderstorms with torrential rains and high winds

23 Precipitation Coalescence – when water droplets collide and make a bigger droplet Primary force in warm clouds Four main types are rain, sleet, snow, hail

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