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Chapter 5: Africa in Transition Section 4: Nigeria.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Africa in Transition Section 4: Nigeria."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5: Africa in Transition Section 4: Nigeria

2 Lesson Questions ► How has geography affected Nigeria’s economy? ► How have regionalism and nationalism affected Nigeria? ► Why did the military take power in Nigeria? ► What economic progress has Nigeria achieved?

3 Geography and People ► One of the largest and richest nations in Africa ► Also, the most populous of all nations ► 1 out of every 6 Africans is Nigerian ► Nigeria is a powerful force in West Africa

4 Geography and People cont. ► Nigeria lies north of the tropics just north of the equator ► The hot, wet climate allows for rain forests which in turn yields a productive lumber industry ► The northern part has savannas and grasslands which yield a productive farming and herding society

5 Geography and People cont. ► Nigeria is named after the Niger river ► The Benue River also runs through the country which allow for irrigation ► The rivers divide the country into three regions based upon ethnicity ► Northern – home to Muslim Hausa and Fulani ► Southwest – Yoruba ► Southeast – Ibo ► Many southerners follow Christianity and traditional beliefs

6 Geography and People cont. ► Smaller ethnic groups are scattered throughout Nigeria ► 250 ethnic groups belong to Nigeria alone ► Six major languages are spoken, predominately English ► Ethnicity – attachment to one’s own ethnic group

7 Political Development ► Before European imperialism the major ethnic groups of present day Nigeria maintained their own states ► 1800s - G.B. made Nigeria into cash crop plantations (crops were peanuts, cocoa, cotton, and palm oil) ► After WWI and WWII Nigerian nationalism grew and the vying ethnic groups (Yoruba, Hausa, Fulani, Ibo) joined together under Nnamdi Azikiwe’s leadership

8 Political Development ► 1960, they gained independence ► Civil war soon ensued because the Ibo thought the Muslim Hausa and Fulani controlled too much political power ► The Ibo also claimed they had more of a right to the local oil fields in their region ► The Ibo set up the state of Biafra in 1967 which resulted in a three year war that took 1 million lives ► To this day, regional support remains alive such as in the Muslim controlled north they influence the local government through Muslim law ► Military dictators have controlled Nigeria for many years until 1999 ► Modern Nigerian leaders still face the problems of uniting their people, improving the economy, and reducing corruption

9 Economic Development ► The production and distribution of oil from Nigeria led to wealth that equated into literacy and new schools ► However, the oil company also led to corruption and pollution ► It widened the gap between the rich and poor ► The pollution has caused attacks against oil rigs in some areas ► Despite the oil Nigeria has fallen into debt whenever world oil prices fall ► Most of its economy is government owned and reforms are needed to combat the countries’ dependence on cash crops

10 Population Growth ► A young population, a large percentage under 15 years old ► 127 million people ► Urbanization is increasing and the government has now tried to stabilize farm prices, in order to slow movement ► Nonetheless, young people in Africa prefer the cities even with the prevalence of poverty

11 Music and Literature ► Nigeria is known for its “talking drums” ► The pitch can be adjusted to imitate the African language ► King Sunny Ade is known as a standout Nigerian musician ► Chinua Achebe, wrote, Things Fall Apart, which dealt with how Europeans affect a Nigerian village ► Wole Soyinka, wrote A Dance of the Forests, was the first African to ever win the Nobel prize for Literature

12 Chinua Achebe ► Wole Soyinka King Sunny Ade

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