Presentation on theme: "Do-Now Take out your homework. Check your answers. (Next Slide) Wednesday, December 3 rd Agenda Do Now Homework Discussion Notes on the Articles of Confederation."— Presentation transcript:
Do-Now Take out your homework. Check your answers. (Next Slide) Wednesday, December 3 rd Agenda Do Now Homework Discussion Notes on the Articles of Confederation Constitution Homework
Homework Check 1.What was the purpose of the articles of confederation? To create a limited national government and a set of laws to govern the U.S., and to leave most of the political power with the states. 2.What are the responsibilities of each of the 3 branches? Legislative: makes the laws Executive: puts the laws passed by Congress into action; Judicial: interprets and applies the laws. 3.What are some provisions of the PA state constitution? White male suffrage was granted regardless of wealth; unicameral (one house) state legislature; representatives in PA’s legislature had to run for election every year 4.Democracy: a government by the people Republic: government run by the people through their elected representatives 5. Why did MA require taxes to be paid in “Specie”? Compared to paper money, specie was far more scarce and therefore more valuable.
Review: Early Government Very few wanted a strong national government Most viewed 13 states as more important than nation as a whole (Anti-Federalists) A balancing act
So what is a Constitution DEFINITION: A plan of government that describes the different parts, divisions of power and responsibilities.
Abandoning the Articles Democracy? –Government by the people Republic? –Government run by the people through their elected representatives
Economic Issues A brand new nation, a new national debt The wealthy did not like “ordinary citizens” to have too much power –Does this problem continue to exist today?
A Government that is too weak is as dangerous as one which is too strong… Federalists, or Nationalists, wanted to strengthen the national government This group included military officers, members of congress, merchants, planters, lawyers Famous faces: George Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, etc.
Shays’ Rebellion Massachusetts initiated a tax and demanded it be paid in specie –Gold and silver instead of paper money Daniel Shays was already in debt –Felt entitled to more respect, became the leader of a rebellion against the government –shut down the courts that were sending them to debtors prison on behalf of big Boston banks
The Constitutional Convention 1786 –Failed meeting in Annapolis, MD 1787 –Met again in Philadelphia –55 delegates –All states but RI –Youngest signer: 26 Jonathan Dayton of NJ –Oldest signer: 81 Benjamin Franklin
Father of the Constitution James Madison 36 years old, VA shy, uncomfortable speaker student of government, history, philosophy Idealistic, he believed that constitutions could establish political institutions that encourage the best people while restraining the worst.
Disagreement over Articles: AMEND THEM? Why? REPLACE THEM? Why?
Delegates decide to replace the Articles with a new Constitution The VIRGINIA PLAN –Created a bi-cameral government –Representation by each state’s population OR by the financial support each state gives to the central gov’t –Elected by popular vote for lower house; state legislators nominate representatives
Delegates decide to replace the Articles with a new Constitution The NEW JERSEY PLAN –Unicameral –Equal representation for each state –Elected by state legislatures
Reaching Agreements THE GREAT COMPROMISE Roger Sherman & Oliver Ellsworth Created legislative branch made up of two houses (VA Plan) –Senate: 2 reps per state –House of Representatives: relative to population THE 3/5 TH COMPROMISE Should slaves count as part of the state’s population? 3/5 th of a state’s slaves would be counted for representation in the House
September 17, 1787 – The convention approved the final draft Goals set in the preamble: We the people of the United States of America, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general wellfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.