What happened? The government created under the Articles was too weak No Leader, states only had one vote, states had more power War debt, economy failing, unrest in colonies after Rev war We must create a new gov’t!! Stronger, hold country together we will create the Constitution
Constitutional Convention (meeting to discuss the creation of Constitution) Philly PA George Washington will be President of Convention May 25,1787 Need to set up some rules
Playing by the rules Main reason keep it secret No notes allowed to be removed Conversations in state house only Each state had one vote No whispering passing notes while other delegates speaking Met 6 days a week 10-4 40 delegates met everyday
Old buildings sitting next to modern sky scrapers
James Madison Get rid of A of C A Strong National Gov’t Proposed 3 branch of gt idea –Legislative –Judicial –Executive –Legislative branch has 2 houses Senate and House of Representatives
Virginia Plan Bicameral or two house legislature Members of the House will be elected directly by people Senators would be chosen by the House Number of seats would be chosen by states population= Proportional Representation
New Jersey Plan A one house legislature where each state has equal number of votes= Equal Representation Proposed by William Patterson of New Jersey www.archives.gov/.../ new_jersey.html
Great Compromise Roger Sherman of Connecticut proposed a plan that took both ideas together: A BICAMERAL or two-house legislature The House of Representatives would be elected by the people # of Reps is based on population. The Senate would have two senators regardless of population. This plan gave large states more power in the House but equal power reigned in the Senate
Slavery or no slavery Major issue was whether each state would have the power to protect or abolish slave trade The North and South Compromised with the national gt. The Constitution declared that the US would regulate trade and would not interfere with slave trade until 1808
The three-fifths compromise Since House seats were based on population the south wanted to count their slaves as part of the population… The northern states objected to this idea because it would give the south more reps in the House Decided to count each slave as 3/5 of a person to decide how many representatives a state could send to the House.
Executive and Judicial branches Powers will be given to the President A Supreme Court will be created –Authority to interpret laws and settle conflicts between states
Who gets to vote? White men with property will… –Elect members of House State legislature will select senators Group of electors will be used for electoral college
The party’s over September 17, 1787 39 delegates signed the Constitution
Homework 1. Why did many delegates fear the power of a national government? 2.Compare the New Jersey Plan and Virginia Plan. 3. Who was eligible to vote at the time of the convention?
Chapter 5 Section 3 Warm-Up 12.11.06 Write the six goals of our government in your notebook (Preamble)
The Supreme Law of the Land The Constitution There are 6 GOALS stated in our Constitution. They are presented in the Preamble.
The goals of our Government We the people of the United States in order “to form a more perfect union” “establish justice” “insure domestic tranquility” “provide for the common defense” “promote general welfare” “and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity” Do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
To form a more perfect union Unite the 13 separate states under an effective national government
Establish justice A legal system to settle disputes between individuals and government, states, national and state governments
Insure domestic tranquility Government establishes a peaceful society people are protected
Provide for the common defense Protect our citizens from attacks by other countries
Promote the general welfare The government tries to create conditions that will benefit all Americans
And secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity Government will give people the freedom to choose their work, to live, believe in what we want.. To all of us our posterity our future descendants
The Articles: the plan for our government Article 1 The Legislative Branch Article 2 The Executive Branch Article 3 The Judicial Branch Article 4 The States Article 5 Amending the Constitution Article 6 The Supremacy of the Constitution Article 7 Ratification
Article 1 The Legislative Branch Organizes Congress The branch that makes the laws Congress has delegated powers: –coin money –Declare war –Regulate trade –Make laws that are necessary and proper = to create new laws as the times change http://www.john-daly.com/TwistedPhotos/albums/album19030305051515085707/congress.jpg
Article 2 The Executive Branch The power is given to the President Job is to execute or carry out the laws Make treaties with the consent of the Congress Nominate judges with the consent of the Congress An undated portrait of James Buchanan, 15th president of the United States from 1857 to 1861, and the only president who was a bachelor. (AP Photo)
Article 3 The Judicial Branch The Supreme court has the final say in all cases involving the constitution. Interpret the laws!!!! Justice Thurgood Marshall stands outside the Supreme Court Building in Washington, September 1, 1967, after he was sworn in as the first black associate justice to serve on the high court. (AP Photo)
Article 4 The States Each state must respect or honor the laws of each other states.
Article 5 Amending the Constitution Making changes to the constitution 18 th Amendment Prohibition 21 st Amendment repeal of 18 th amendment (Prohibition)
Article 6 The Supremacy of the Constitution The states and the national government must recognize that the Constitution laws are supreme Federal laws take priority
Article 7 Ratification Procedure for ratification or approval of constitution
Elastic Clause Allows the constitution to “Make all laws which are necessary and proper” Make the Constitution work for us.
3 limitations of government Federalism Separation of powers Checks and balances
Federalism The division of power between the states and the federal government Some powers belong to the state some to the federal gt Some powers are shared both federal and state called: –concurrent powers Powers given neither to Congress nor denied to the states are called –Reserved powers
Separation of Powers Colonies wanted to prevent tyranny so they made sure no one person had all the power Three branches divides the power Legislative: makes laws Executive: enforces laws Judicial: interprets laws
Checks and Balances Gives each branch of gt ways to limit the powers of the other 2