Protagonist: The main character in a story Antagonist: Whoever or whatever works against the main character in a story Characters
Dynamic: A character who changes significantly (internally) over the course of a story. This change may be in understanding, values, or insight. Static: A character who does not change significantly over the course of a story. Characters
Round: A character with depth, written with detail so it seems “real” (Often also dynamic) Round: A character with depth, written with detail so it seems “real” (Often also dynamic) Flat: A simplified character without much personality development or detail (Often also static) Flat: A simplified character without much personality development or detail (Often also static) Characters
Climax: the turning point, the most intense moment—either mentally or in action Rising Action: the series of conflicts and crisis in the story that lead to the climax Exposition: the start of the story - includes setting, characters and conflict Resolution: the solving of the problem/conflict Little Mermaid
Human vs. human Human vs. self Human vs. society
Human vs. nature Human vs. fate Human vs. technology Human vs. supernatural
Internal --a struggle within the character External —conflict between the character and another person, society, nature, or technology
Direct Characterization Directly describing a character Shaquille O’Neal, an NBA basketball superstar, is one of the tallest players in the league, standing 7’3” tall.
Indirect Characterization Describing a character through his actions, words, and what others think or say about him. As Shaq came through the classroom door, he had to duck down to keep from hitting his head. He told the teacher, “Let me wipe that dust off your ceiling fan.” One of the students thought – that’s the biggest guy I’ve ever seen!
1 st Person – Narrator is a character in the story and is telling the story. (Has “I”) › My sister and I went to the store. › 3 rd Person Omniscient – Person telling the story is not a character in the story – is “all knowing” narrator – knows what all characters are thinking, saying, and doing › Mary and her sister went to the store; they both thought the cashier was friendly and would give them a deal.
3 rd Person Objective- Narrator telling the story is not a character in the story - narrator only tells what he sees and hears - like a reporter › Mary and her sister went to the store; the cashier was helpful. 3 rd Person Limited - Narrator telling the story is not a character in the story – only focuses on one character in the story › Mary went to the store and thought the cashier was friendly, so she asked for directions to the mall.
Functions of setting: background for action establishing the mood or atmosphere
Functions f setting: developing the main character setting as antagonist emphasizing the theme
a statement about life that the author is communicating through the selection. It is the message that unifies the work. It is the main idea of the work. › Stated theme obvious or clear theme. Sometimes the author tells the reader the lesson a character learned in life. › Implied theme Reader must use clues in the story to find the theme › Universal themes Themes that are common to most human situations