2 What is a short story? A short story is a work of fiction that is usually written in prose.A short story is usually written in narrative format, which means it tells a story.A short story can come in many shapes and sizes. More than 100 pages is usually considered a novella.
3 What is a plot? Plot is the chain of related events that take place in a story.Plot is built around a conflict,which is a struggle betweenopposing forces.
4 What does a plot look like? climaxfalling actionrising actionresolutionexpositionconflict
5 The exposition gives the background of the story. The rising action introduces the story’s complications and builds suspense.The climax is the turning point of the story, and suspense reaches its peak.The falling action and resolution resolve the conflict and usually tie up loose ends.
6 The plot of a short story centers around a conflict. A conflict is a struggle between opposing forces.These complications build the reader’s excitement.
7 What are the types of conflict? External conflict is a battle between a character and an outside force.-Man v Man-Man v Nature-Man v an Obstacle/SocietyInternal conflict is a battle within a character.-Man v Himself
8 What is characterization? Characterization is the information the author gives the reader about the characters .The author may reveal a character in several ways:his/her physical appearancewhat he/she says, thinks, feels and dreamswhat he/she does or does not dowhat others say about him/herhow others react to him/herCharacters are convincing if they are consistent,motivated, and life-like (resemble real people) .
9 What are the methods of characterization? Indirect Characterizationusesphysical appearancespeech, thoughts, feelings, or actions of the characterspeech, thoughts, feelings, or actions of other charactersto reveal a character.Direct Characterizationusesthe narrator’s direct commentsto reveal a character.
10 What are the types of characters? Characters can be:Main or MinorProtagonist or AntagonistRound or Dynamic (Main)Complex personalities - we learn much about them - the character goes through a change for better or worse by the end of the storyFlat or Static (Minor)Stock Characters/Stereotypes -they never change - not much is revealed about them.
11 To observe the difference between direct and indirect characterization, read the paired paragraphs below. Each is written to convey the same basic information. One of each pair demonstrates direct characterization while the other demonstrates indirect characterization. See if you can identify which method is being used.Ed Johnson scratched his head in confusion as the sales rep explained Dralco’s newest engine performance diagnostic computer. The old mechanic hated modern electronics, preferring the old days when all he needed was a stack of manuals and a good set of tools.“That Ed Johnson,” said Anderson, watching the old mechanic scratch his head in confusion as the sales rep explained Dralco’s newest engine performance diagnostic computer. “He hasn’t got a clue about modern electronics. Give him a good set of tools and a stack of yellowing manuals with a carburetor needing repair, and he’d be happy as a hungry frog in a fly-field.”
12 Setting is the time and place in which a story happens. What is a setting?Setting is the time and place in which a story happens.Setting puts the reader in the story by giving the reader the feeling of being in the situation.Setting creates an atmosphere with the positive or negative feelings associated with the place.
13 What is point of view? Point of view is the person telling the story. Point of view is the vantage point from which the story is told.Point of view determines how much we, the readers, know about the characters.
14 What is first person?In first person point of view, the narrator is a character in the story who is also telling the story.A first person narrator uses first-person pronouns, I, me, my, we, us, our, to refer to him or herself.A first person narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of one character (him or herself) and speaks directly to reader.
15 What is third person limited? With third person limited, the narrator does not participate in the action of the story.With third person limited, the narrator does not refer to him or herself (no first person pronouns).With third person limited, the narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of one character, but readers are able to maintain some emotional distance from the character (the story is told through the eyes of one character).
16 What is third person omniscient? A third person omniscient narrator does not participate in the action of the story.A third person omniscient narrator does not refer to him or herself (no first person pronouns).A third person omniscient narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all characters; readers get insight into several characters (the narrator is ‘God like’).
18 A symbol is a person, a place, an activity, or an object that stands for something beyond itself.
19 In most cases, the theme is not stated directly but must be inferred. What is theme?In literature, theme is a message about life or human nature that the writer wants to share with the reader.In most cases, the theme is not stated directly but must be inferred.
20 A theme can be revealed through: How is the theme revealed?A theme can be revealed through:- a story’s title- key phrases and statements about big ideas- the ways the characters change and the lessons they learn about life
21 Common types of Themes -Things are not always what they seem. -Love can conquer allBelieve in yourself-Don’t judge a book by its cover- People are afraid of change.
22 ForeshadowingWhen an author gives clues in the story about what is to happen in the future.