Presentation on theme: "Teaching Plot Structure Through Short Stories"— Presentation transcript:
1 Teaching Plot Structure Through Short Stories Plot is the literary element that describes the structure of a story. A plot diagram is an organizational tool, which is used to map the significant events in a story. By placing the most significant events from a story on the plot diagram, you can visualize the key features of the story.Plot is the literary element that shows the arrangement of events and actions within a story.
2 Types of Linear Plots Plots can be told in Chronological order-events told in the time order they actually happened.In addition, you can note that some stories follow a circular or episodic plot, and hypertextual stories can be different every time they’re read, as the reader chooses the direction that the story takes. If a story that students are working on does not fit into the triangle structure, think about why the author would choose a different story structure and how the structure has changed.Flashback-when the character goes back to an event that happened earlier in time.
3 Plot ComponentsClimax: the turning point, the most intense moment—either mentally or in actionRising Action: the series of conflicts and crisis in the story that lead to the climaxFalling Action: all of the action which follows the climaxExposition: The mood and conditions existing at the beginning of the story. The setting is identified. The main characters with their positions, circumstances and relationships to one another are established. The exciting force or initial conflict is introduced. Sometimes called the “Narrative HOOK” this begins the conflict that continues throughout the story.Rising Action: The series of events, conflicts, and crises in the story that lead up to the climax, providing the progressive intensity, and complicate the conflict.Climax: The turning point of the story. A crucial event takes place and from this point forward, the protagonist moves toward his inevitable end. The event may be either an action or a mental decision that the protagonist makes.Falling Action: The events occurring from the time of the climax to the end of the story. The main character may encounter more conflicts in this part of the story, but the end is inevitable.Resolution/Denouement: The tying up of loose ends and all of the threads in the story. The conclusion. The hero character either emerges triumphant or is defeated at this point.Exposition: the start of the story, the situation before the action startsResolution: the conclusion, the tying together of all of the threads
4 ConflictConflict is the dramatic struggle between two forces in a story. Without conflict, there is no plot.
5 Types of Conflict Interpersonal Conflict Human vs Human Human vs NatureHuman vs SocietyHuman vs SelfInternal Conflict
6 CharactersThe people, animals, or other beings that take part in the stories events/plot.Protagonist: The main character in a storyAntagonist: A character or force in conflict with the main characterRound Character: A fully developed character with many traits (strengths and weaknesses)Flat Character: An underdeveloped characterDynamic Character: A character who grows and changes throughout storyStatic Character: A character who does not change in story
7 Shrek Characters Protagonist: Shrek Antagonist: Lord Farquaad (stands in his way…kills ogres and tries to keep Shrek and Fiona apart.Shrek is a dynamic character because he changes throughout the story: he becomes “softer” and lets people into his life.Shrek is round because we see his strengths and weaknesses: he seems like a real person!
8 A Wrinkle in Time Protagonist: _____________ Antagonist:______________ Round Character(s):Flat Character(s):Dynamic Character:Static Character:
9 Characterization Methods DirectAuthor description statedwhat the character sayswhat the character doesIndirectwhat others say about the characterhow others reactimplied
11 Theme The message/lesson the story conveys What are the big ideas? What lesson can be learned?: Shrek: accepting oneself, true beauty is not external
12 Point of view: who is telling the story First person: a person inside the story is telling itMajor: a main character is telling itNarrator: a person is relating what happened to othersMinor: a minor character is telling it
13 Point of viewThird person: a person outside of the story is telling itLimited omniscient: we follow around one or two characters knowing what they do and thinkOmniscient: “All knowing”
14 Other termstone: the author’s attitude toward the work (happy, sad, scary, suspenseful)mood/atmosphere: the emotional effect created by a workEdgar Allen Poe’s stories create a scary/intense/feeling in the reader…
15 Symbolism symbol: something stands for a concept larger than itself standard or cultural symbolsauthor-created symbols= Innocence= America/Democracy/Freedom= Peace
16 More terms Foreshadowing: hints or clues of what is to come Imagery: painting pictures with wordsFlashback: going back to past eventsStyle/Diction: the author’s manner of writing and word choice.S.E. Hinton uses a lot of slang to make The Outsiders more realistic to teenage talk.