Presentation on theme: "Byzantine Empire Religious & Political Differences Split Christianity, Decline of the Empire."— Presentation transcript:
Byzantine Empire Religious & Political Differences Split Christianity, Decline of the Empire
Religion Emperors were supported by the church because was part of the government. It was a political and religious force. Constantine was the first Christian emperor of the Roman Empire. Until the 5 th century, the pope was the head of all Catholic Churches. Numerous disagreements erupted from the divide in the East(Orthodox) and West(Catholic) church.
West – Roman Catholic Church The Roman Catholic Church was more powerful than Western monarchs. It was not only a spiritual institution but a strong political institution The pope was the centre of the Roman Catholic Church – virtually all power presided in the Pope and a hierarchy of bishops existed below the Pope
East – Greek Orthodox Church Eastern Religious leaders (Patriarchs), refused to recognize the Pope. Byzantine church leaders were consulted for political decisions. Important political figures as well, this was seen as a successful and wealthy career. Religion and the Byzantine Empire were strongly intertwined The emperor was near divinity High degree of theological authority
First Religious Disagreement Nature of Jesus The pope: ▫Jesus had 2 natures: human and divine The Monophysites: ▫Jesus had one nature: divine
Council of Chalcedon 451 A.D. – Pope Leo I: ▫Jesus, although one person, had two natures. This did not satisfy the Eastern Orthodox Church. They also didn’t like that the Pope had made the decision for them. Eastern religious leaders refused to recognize this decision.
Second Religious Disagreement Question of whether or not images, or pictures and statues, were to be allowed in the church. Western church ▫Images were essential in helping people to imagine the divine. They saw opposition to religious icons as a threat to traditional Christianity.
Eastern church opposed the use of images Worship of images or icons was a pagan belief Anything made by humans should not be worshiped They believed that only Gods should be worshipped This philosophy was inspired in part of the Islamic faith.
Religious Conflict 726 – Pope Leo III: Issued an edict forbidding the use of images or icons of the sacred personages of Christianity including Christ and all the Saints Rioting broke out in Constantinople Eastern religious leaders again refused to recognize this decision 1054 A.D – Issue was the use of leavened bread vs. unleavened bread in the communion service. This caused both sides to excommunicate each other which led to an open schism. Churches permanently separated in 1054
Map of the Religious Division This division between the two churches is known as schism
Decline The decline of the Empire lasted from 1056- 1453 While emperors, such as Justinian, had tried to expand the Byzantine Empire, their efforts were unsuccessful. Severe economic problems prevented the empire from developing a firm economic foundation.
Decline The empire faced some significant opposition in the form of the Seljuk and later the Ottoman Turks. The Christians of Western Europe succeeded in capturing Constantinople for a time
Battle fought during the decline 1071: Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert 1081-1118: Alexius Comnenus – 1096-1099: The First Crusade 1204: Constantinople falls to Crusaders during the Fourth Crusade 1261: Constantinople is liberated from the Crusaders. 1453: Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks "Ottoman Empire" Chronology