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South Asia Chapters 24-26.

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Presentation on theme: "South Asia Chapters 24-26."— Presentation transcript:

1 South Asia Chapters 24-26


3 Overview Himalayas are part of South Asia
Area includes seven countries: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives Area is referred to as a subcontinent: a large landmass that is smaller than a continent. ½ the size of the US but has more than 1 billion inhabitants-1/5 the world’s population.

4 Mountains Northern Mountains
The Himalayas were born from continents breaking apart and then colliding World’s highest mountains Mount Everest, world’s tallest peak, sits in the middle of the range. The Hindu Kush Lie west of the Himalayas Hosted fighting for centuries between tribes trying to conquer India and Central Asian tribes.


6 Plateaus Southern Plateaus
The tectonic collisions also created many smaller mountain ranges. The Deccan plateau covers much of southern India and is surrounded by mountains The result is an arid climate


8 Rivers, Deltas, and Plains
Three rivers of note: the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra All three empty in the Bay of Bengal Fertile Plains Support life around Southern Asia, crucial for irrigation Carry rich soil called alluvial soil, from the mountains to farmland The plains are also the most heavily populated region of South Asia

9 Offshore Islands Two island groups located in the Indian Ocean
Sri Lanka and the Maldives Sri Lanka Large tear-shaped island Lush, tropical land, very beautiful, small rivers and rugged mountains The Maldives Archipelago- island group Most islands are tops of submerged volcanoes surrounded by coral and shallow lagoons. Also known as an atoll



12 Natural Resources Abundant resources are stretched out due to extremely high population Water and Soil Rivers that come from the mountains and bring alluvial soil also bring irrigation Good fishing and farming lands Water provides transportation and hydroelectric power to countries

13 Forests Many types of hardwood grow here
Sal, teak, bamboo, and sandalwood Deforestation is a severe problem Causes soil erosion, flooding, landslides, and loss of wildlife Forests are in bad shape in India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka Minerals India is one of the world’s leading producer of iron ore India supplies the most mica in the world Used in electrical equipment Sri Lanka produces rubies and sapphires


15 Climate South Asia has six climate zones
Semiarid- high temperatures and light rain Includes the Thar Desert Tropical wet zone High temperatures and heavy rainfall Holds world record for rainfall Highland zone Coldest climate, includes Himalayas Humid Subtropical zone Very warm

16 Monsoons and Cyclones Whole area is affected by monsoons-seasonal winds Happens from June-September Winds bring in moist ocean air and heavy rain This rain is crucial to plant life but can cause flooding and landslides. Cyclones- violent storms with fierce and heavy rain Most destructive in Bangladesh, a low-lying coastal region High waves can swamp large parts of the country


18 Vegetation Zones Tropical Wet zone Highland zone
Contain the most forests, including rain forests Highland zone Contains forests of pine, fir, and evergreens Humid subtropical zone Contains forests of palms and other hardwoods Semiarid zone Sparse vegetation

19 Life Along the Ganges The Ganges’ source is a glacier in the Himalayas. It delivers water to 350 million people Provides drinking water, farm irrigation, and transportation Viewed as sacred to the Hindu faith Known as “Mother Ganges” Brings life to its people Worship the river as a goddess Viewed to have healing powers

20 Life Along the Ganges Most sacred city along the Ganges is Varanasi
Pilgrims come from all over the world to bathe and drink the water They float baskets of flowers and burning candles down the river The river is very polluted After centuries of intense human use, its in trouble Millions of gallons of raw sewage and industrial waste flow with dead animals and even dead human bodies As a result, deadly toxins and bacteria live in the river Progress to clean the river has been slow



23 India Started in the Indus Valley
Started by the Aryans- a light skinned race Europeans arrived in the 1500s looking to trade Britain took over control, called the raj, for 90 years Gandhi started peaceful resistance and it worked Britain gave India their freedom Pakistan and Bangladesh soon broke off from India Violence between Hindu (India) and Muslims (Pakistan)

24 India India is the world’s largest democracy
They adopted a constitution in 1950 Their government reflects both American and British governing systems. Federation of states like the US Parliamentary legislature like Britain Many different ethnicities, cultures, and lots of people has caused some problems but India is a fairly steady and peaceful democracy.

25 Life in India Family life is the center of Indian culture.
Most families follow arranged marriage ideals Popular in more rural areas Indian cuisine is largely vegetarian, but some eat fish and chicken Hindus and Muslims do not eat beef or pork Education is vital to the Indian economy and industry. Literacy rates are high in most urban areas, except the slums

26 Indian Culture The Indian constitution recognizes 18 different languages Hindi is the official language, English is commonly spoken in government and business Hinduism Roots began in the Aryan culture Belief in many gods Reincarnation- the rebirth of the soul after death Karma- moral consequences of a person’s actions Helps determine reincarnation

27 Indian Culture The Caste system
Aryan system of separating social class Still in use by Hindus today Four basic castes: Brahmans: priests and scholars Kshatriyas: rulers and warriors Vaisyas: farmers and merchants Sudras: Artisans and laborers Untouchables: Lowest of the low Officially disbanded by the constitution

28 Indian Culture Hindus believe you are born into a caste and you have a certain moral duty to uphold Known as dharma You can only move in between caste systems through reincarnation Brought social order to its people but also caused segregation and discrimination

29 Pakistan and Bangladesh
Both countries are considered young but with ancient histories. First civilizations came from Pakistan region History similar to India Establish a civilization, Europe comes over to trade, Britain takes over, gain independence The war for independence caused a partition, or division of India. West Pakistan (now Pakistan), India, and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) The Pakistans shared religious ideals (Islam)


31 Struggling Economies Pakistan and Bangladesh have rapid growing populations but their economies rely heavily on agriculture Subsistence Farming- growing enough crops to feed only their families Governments are trying to modernize farming methods Climate plays role in low crop yields Neither country is highly industrious Lack money to build business up Microcredit loans Small loans given to people starting their own businesses. Many entrepreneurs can be on one loan Allows for smaller repayment plans Growing business

32 Islamic Culture Both are Islamic nations but they differ
Pakistan follows stricter laws, including purdah-the seclusion of women Pakistan also has six different ethnic groups that all speak their own languages Urdu is their official language (chosen in order to not favorite any one tribe) Bangladesh has one major ethnicity-Bengal Their language comes form ancient Sanskrit


34 Nepal and Bhutan Both are located in the Himalayas
Both are isolated due to their mountainous locations Landlocked countries with no sea port Both governments are constitutional monarchies-kingdoms in which the ruler’s powers are limited by a constitution. Both governments are transitioning to democratic republics Both countries are limited in resources Use terrace farming on small plots

35 Nepal and Bhutan Tourism is rapidly increasing
People want to climb the Himalayas Tourism may be hurting the environment People leave their trash on the mountains Sherpas are the ethnic group that guides people up the mountains Religion is a powerful force in this region. Nepalese people are Hindu but Buddha was born in Nepal


37 South Asian Issues Population Explosion
By 2045, India will have 1.5 billion people living in an area 1/3 the size of the US Can they provide enough food, shelter, clothing? As populations in these countries rise, government officials are having trouble providing services for all it people Think of school alone! How do you manage this issue? Smaller families Education

38 South Asian Issues Weather-
Summer and Winter monsoons control climate and planting schedules Plant during end of wet season, harvest during cool season, stay inside during hot season Monsoons are vital to the rainforests, crops, and soil Cyclones cause tremendous devastation Known as hurricanes in US If they are too strong, they will knock out crops, flood lands, and kill people

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