2 Five Fast FactsIndia has the second largest population in the world, with over 1.2 billion people.The major religions of India include Hinduism 80.5%, Islam 13.4%, Christianity 2.3%, Sikhism 1.9%The highest mountain in India—and the 3rd highest in the world-- is Kanchenjunga, standing at 28,209 ft).Many different languages are spoken in India. The main ones are Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, and Urdu. English is spoken widely because India was a British colonyThe most populated city is Mumbai—20.5 million people in metropolitan area-3 times the population of Washington State
3 Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY EarlyCivilizationsofAncient IndiaMs. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
13 The Vedas 1200 BCE-600 BCE. written in SANSKRIT. Hindu core of beliefs:hymns and poems.religious prayers.magical spells.lists of the gods and goddesses.Rig Veda oldest work.
14 Varna (Social Hierarchy) Brahmins(priests)Kshatriyas (warriors)Vaishyas(Landowners and merchants)Shudras(laborers)
15 Pariahs [Harijan] also called “Untouchables”, people considered impure because of their work (gravediggers, trash collectors, butchers)They were called untouchables since even their touch was impure
16 The Caste System WHO IS… The mouth? The arms? The legs? The feet? BrahminsWHO IS…KshatriyasThe mouth?The arms?The legs?The feet?VaishyasShudrasJATI?
17 Chandragupta: 321 BCE-298 BCE Unified northern India.Defeated the Persian general Seleucus.Divided his empire into provinces, then districts for tax assessments and law enforcement.He feared assassination [like Saddam Hussein] food tasters, slept in different rooms, etc.301 BCE gave up his throne & became a Jain.
19 Asoka (304 – 232 BCE)Religious conversion after the gruesome battle of Kalinga in BCE.Dedicated his life to Buddhism.Built extensive roads.Conflict how to balance Kautilya’s methods of keeping power and Buddha’s demands to become a selfless person?
21 Asoka’s law codeEdicts scattered in more than 30 places in India, Nepal, Pakistan, & Afghanistan.Written mostly in Sanskrit, but one was in Greek and Aramaic.10 rock edicts.Each pillar [stupa] is 40’-50’ high.Buddhist principles dominate his laws.
27 500 healing plants identified Printed medicinal guides Gupta Achievements1000 diseases classified500 healing plants identifiedPrinted medicinal guidesKalidasaLiteraturePlastic SurgeryMedicineInoculationsGupta IndiaC-sections performedSolar CalendarAstronomyMathematicsDecimal SystemThe earth is roundPI =Concept of Zero
28 The Decline of the Guptas Invasion of the White Huns in the 4th century CE signaled the end of the Gupta Golden Age.After the decline of the Gupta empire, north India broke into a number of separate Hindu kingdoms and was not really unified again until the coming of the Muslims in the 7 century CE.