Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ancient Civilizations of South Asia. 1. Indus River Valley. 2

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Ancient Civilizations of South Asia. 1. Indus River Valley. 2"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Civilizations of South Asia. 1. Indus River Valley. 2
Ancient Civilizations of South Asia Indus River Valley 2. Aryan Civilization 3. Maurya Empire 4. Gupta Dynasty

2 Indus River Valley B.C. Part of Afghanistan, Pakistan and north-western India. Two major cities were Harappa and the Mohenjo-Daro They were farmers, traders Farmers: grew wheat, barley, melons, and dates first to grow cotton first to weave fiber from cotton Merchants: traded cotton, cloth, grain, and ivory Ruins of Mohenjo-Daro Jewelry of Mohenjo-Daro Ancient Indus River Valley Stone Writing Tablets

3 Indus River Valley Technology Decline of civilization
Developed a writing system Concept of zero Number system used today Metals - bronze, silver, gold built homes out of brick and stone canals drainage systems, wells and water storage systems systems of weights pottery jewelry game pieces, chess, and toys Decline of civilization flooding, economy, invasions Public Well Drainage System

4 Aryan Civilization 1700 ˜300 B.C.E.
"noble ones" or the "superior ones” Nomadic peoples - fierce warriors Invaded northwest India 1750 BC Came from steppes of central Asia and Iran through the Khyber Pass First settled in Indus River Valley later settled in Ganges River Valley. Divided into tribal kingdoms – Jana and were ruled by chiefs. Horse and herding culture Established Vedas and Caste system: Foundation of Hinduism Feudal Kingdoms spread through India: ruled by Brahmins (Priests)

5 Aryan Civilization Technology iron ore introduced rice
use of iron weapons introduced the horse Aryan Temple Arian Swastika

6 Sanskrit writing

7 The Vedas 1200 BCE-600 BCE. written in SANSKRIT.
Hindu core of beliefs: hymns and poems. religious prayers. magical spells. lists of the gods and goddesses. Rig Veda  oldest work.

8 Pariahs [Harijan]  Untouchables
Social Hierarchy Brahmins Priests Kshatriyas Warriors Vaishyas Merchants Shudras Servants/Serfs Pariahs [Harijan]  Untouchables

9 Maurya Empire321-185 B.C.E. First Indian empire
Largest empire to rule the Indian subcontinent Great political and military empire Founded by Aryan descendants Maurya was the first emperor- accepted Jainism Maurya Sandstone

10 Maurya Empire Asoka “the Great” - was one of the emperors
Accepted Buddhism Allowed Hinduism Unified the government Ended indentured and forced labor Conservation of wildlife Elephants in battle, as weapons and vehicles from BCE Known for their sculptures Sandstone carvings Asoka Elephant Army

11 Asoka (304 – 232 BCE) Religious conversion after the gruesome battle of Kalinga in BCE. Dedicated his life to Buddhism. Built extensive roads. Conflict  how to balance Kautilya’s methods of keeping power and Buddha’s demands to become a selfless person?

12 Asoka’s law code Edicts scattered in more than 30 places in India, Nepal, Pakistan, & Afghanistan. Written mostly in Sanskrit, but one was in Greek and Aramaic. 10 rock edicts. Each pillar [stupa] is 40’-50’ high. Buddhist principles dominate his laws.


14 Gupta Dynasty 320 -500 A.D. Most rulers were Hindu “Golden Age” peace
law and order cultural achievement

15 Chandragupta: 321 BCE-298 BCE
Unified northern India. Defeated the Persian general Seleucus. Divided his empire into provinces, then districts for tax assessments and law enforcement. He feared assassination [like Saddam Hussein]  food tasters, slept in different rooms, etc. 301 BCE  gave up his throne & became a in.

16 Gupta Rulers Chandra Gupta I Chandra Gupta II Hindu revival.
320 – 335 CE “Great King of Kings” Chandra Gupta II CE Profitable trade with the Mediterranean world! Hindu revival. Huns invade – 450 CE

17 Kautilya Chandragupta’s advisor. Brahmin caste.
Wrote The Treatise on Material Gain or the Arthashastra. A guide for the king and his ministers: Supports royal power. The great evil in society is anarchy. Therefore, a single authority is needed to employ force when necessary!

18 International Trade Routes during the Guptas

19 Extensive Trade: 4c spices silks cotton goods rice & wheat spices
horses gold & ivory gold & ivory cotton goods

20 Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.
Gupta Art Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.

21 500 healing plants identified Printed medicinal guides
Gupta Achievements 1000 diseases classified 500 healing plants identified Printed medicinal guides Kalidasa Literature Plastic Surgery Medicine Inoculations Gupta India C-sections performed Solar Calendar Astronomy Mathematics Decimal System The earth is round PI = Concept of Zero

22 The Decline of the Guptas
Invasion of the White Huns in the 4c signaled the end of the Gupta Golden Age, even though at first, the Guptas defeated them. After the decline of the Gupta empire, north India broke into a number of separate Hindu kingdoms and was not really unified again until the coming of the Muslims in the 7c.

Download ppt "Ancient Civilizations of South Asia. 1. Indus River Valley. 2"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google