Presentation on theme: "Ancient Civilizations of South Asia. 1. Indus River Valley. 2"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ancient Civilizations of South Asia. 1. Indus River Valley. 2 Ancient Civilizations of South Asia Indus River Valley 2. Aryan Civilization 3. Maurya Empire 4. Gupta Dynasty
2 Indus River Valley B.C.Part of Afghanistan, Pakistan and north-western India.Two major cities wereHarappa and the Mohenjo-DaroThey were farmers, tradersFarmers:grew wheat, barley, melons, and datesfirst to grow cottonfirst to weave fiber fromcottonMerchants:traded cotton, cloth, grain, and ivoryRuins of Mohenjo-Daro Jewelry of Mohenjo-DaroAncient Indus River Valley Stone Writing Tablets
3 Indus River Valley Technology Decline of civilization Developed a writing systemConcept of zeroNumber system used todayMetals - bronze, silver, goldbuilt homes out of brick and stonecanalsdrainage systems, wells and water storage systemssystems of weightspotteryjewelrygame pieces, chess, and toysDecline of civilizationflooding, economy, invasionsPublic Well Drainage System
4 Aryan Civilization 1700 ˜300 B.C.E. "noble ones" or the "superior ones”Nomadic peoples - fierce warriorsInvaded northwest India 1750 BCCame from steppes of central Asia and Iran through the Khyber PassFirst settled in Indus River Valley later settled in Ganges River Valley.Divided into tribal kingdoms – Jana and were ruled by chiefs.Horse and herding cultureEstablished Vedas and Caste system: Foundation of HinduismFeudal Kingdoms spread through India: ruled by Brahmins (Priests)
5 Aryan Civilization Technology iron ore introduced rice use of iron weaponsintroduced the horseAryan TempleArian Swastika
7 The Vedas 1200 BCE-600 BCE. written in SANSKRIT. Hindu core of beliefs:hymns and poems.religious prayers.magical spells.lists of the gods and goddesses.Rig Veda oldest work.
8 Pariahs [Harijan] Untouchables Social HierarchyBrahminsPriestsKshatriyasWarriorsVaishyasMerchantsShudrasServants/SerfsPariahs [Harijan] Untouchables
9 Maurya Empire321-185 B.C.E. First Indian empire Largest empire to rule the Indian subcontinentGreat political and military empireFounded by Aryan descendantsMaurya was the first emperor- accepted JainismMaurya Sandstone
10 Maurya Empire Asoka “the Great” - was one of the emperors Accepted BuddhismAllowed HinduismUnified the governmentEnded indentured and forced laborConservation of wildlifeElephants in battle, as weaponsand vehicles from BCEKnown for their sculpturesSandstone carvingsAsokaElephant Army
11 Asoka (304 – 232 BCE)Religious conversion after the gruesome battle of Kalinga in BCE.Dedicated his life to Buddhism.Built extensive roads.Conflict how to balance Kautilya’s methods of keeping power and Buddha’s demands to become a selfless person?
12 Asoka’s law codeEdicts scattered in more than 30 places in India, Nepal, Pakistan, & Afghanistan.Written mostly in Sanskrit, but one was in Greek and Aramaic.10 rock edicts.Each pillar [stupa] is 40’-50’ high.Buddhist principles dominate his laws.
14 Gupta Dynasty 320 -500 A.D. Most rulers were Hindu “Golden Age” peace law and ordercultural achievement
15 Chandragupta: 321 BCE-298 BCE Unified northern India.Defeated the Persian general Seleucus.Divided his empire into provinces, then districts for tax assessments and law enforcement.He feared assassination [like Saddam Hussein] food tasters, slept in different rooms, etc.301 BCE gave up his throne & became a in.
16 Gupta Rulers Chandra Gupta I Chandra Gupta II Hindu revival. 320 – 335 CE“Great King of Kings”Chandra Gupta IICEProfitable trade with the Mediterranean world!Hindu revival.Huns invade – 450 CE
17 Kautilya Chandragupta’s advisor. Brahmin caste. Wrote The Treatise on Material Gain or the Arthashastra.A guide for the king and his ministers:Supports royal power.The great evil in society is anarchy.Therefore, a single authority is needed to employ force when necessary!
20 Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture. Gupta ArtGreatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.
21 500 healing plants identified Printed medicinal guides Gupta Achievements1000 diseases classified500 healing plants identifiedPrinted medicinal guidesKalidasaLiteraturePlastic SurgeryMedicineInoculationsGupta IndiaC-sections performedSolar CalendarAstronomyMathematicsDecimal SystemThe earth is roundPI =Concept of Zero
22 The Decline of the Guptas Invasion of the White Huns in the 4c signaled the end of the Gupta Golden Age, even though at first, the Guptas defeated them.After the decline of the Gupta empire, north India broke into a number of separate Hindu kingdoms and was not really unified again until the coming of the Muslims in the 7c.