2 Chapter 2 Objectives (continue) Objective 2.3: Explain how the underlying principles and stages presented in Vygotsky’s theory of development influence current educational research and practice.
3 Lev VygotskyRussian psychologist ( ), much of whose work was suppressed until the dissolution of the USSRFocused on sociocultural theory, the idea that all development takes place in social settings and is therefore influenced by social forcesDeveloped theories as he worked to improve his own teaching and looked for ideas that might help explain and guide his experiences as an educator
4 Vygotsky’s View of Cognitive Development How Development OccursLearning Precedes DevelopmentAcquisition of Signs with Help of More Experienced OthersInternalization of SignsAutonomous Problem Solving (Self-regulation)Copyright Allyn & Bacon 1999
5 Vygotsky’s View of Cognitive Development Key IdeasSocial Sources of Individual ThinkingRole of Cultural ToolsZone of Proximal DevelopmentCopyright Allyn & Bacon 1999
6 Sociocultural TheoryInformation is passed in two phases: interpsychologically and then intrapsychologicallyExperiences are co-constructed; both the teacher and the learner participate in the process of knowledge acquisition or construction
7 Cultural ToolsMaterial (e.g. calculators, blogs, wikis, PDAs, cell phones, etc.) & Psychological (signs and symbol systems, Braille and sign language, maps, works of art, codes, and language) Tools employed in the culture, in frequent social situations are critical to cognitive developmentPeople are best able to represent their thoughts when they are familiar with commonly accepted forms of communication
8 Vygotsky’s View of Cognitive Development Private SpeechZone of Proximal DevelopmentScaffoldingCopyright Allyn & Bacon 1999
9 Zone of Proximal Development The Zone of Proximal development is known as the ZPD or Zo-Ped (common in Europe)
10 Zone of Proximal Development Zone of Proximal Development—Mentor scaffolds learning and the learner develops new knowledge using developmentally appropriate learning tasks.ZPDStudent KnowsLearning GoalCopyright Allyn & Bacon 1999
11 Scaffolding“Scaffolding” is the work required by the expert necessary to bring the learner from that which they are capable of doing alone to that which they are capable of doing with assistance.It is also used to describe the act of assistance itself.
12 Scaffolding 2. Time Passes = Gradual Release New Task = Mentor + Learner3. Learner Takes on the Responsibility for learningScaffoldingCopyright Allyn & Bacon 1999
13 Applications of Vygotsky’s Theory Provide Cooperative LearningActivities Among Students with Different Ability LevelsCopyright Allyn & Bacon 1999
14 Vygotsky’s Work: Instructional Strategies Instructional Principles*Embed learning activities in a context that is culturally authentic.*Create learning activities that involve students in social interactions.*Encourage students to use language to describe their developing understandings.*Create learning activities that are in learners’ zones of proximal development.*Provide instructional assistance to promote learning and development.
15 LanguageLanguage is central to sociocultural theory because it is the primary means of information transmission between expert and learnerPrivate Speech vs. Egocentric Speech:Piaget viewed egocentric speech as evidence of children’s social immaturityVygotsky viewed private speech as a tool for simplifying complex tasks
16 LanguageHave you ever found yourself talking out loud while trying to solve a difficult problem?
17 Comparing Piaget and Vygotsky’s Theories Vygotsky's ideas:Continuous development (no stages)Zone of proximal developmentSocially transmitted knowledge (cooperative learning and Scaffolding)Private speech helps internalize knowledgePiagetian Ideas:Four discrete stagesCognitive development is limited by stagesYoung children are schematicMotivation to maintain cognitive equilibriumDevelopment occurs when assimilation is not possible (adaptation)Both were constructivistsBoth believed that social forces set the limits of developmentCopyright Allyn & Bacon 1999
18 Role of Social Interaction Piaget: Disequilibrium is the key to learning.Vygotsky: Encounters with more experienced people (experts) is key to learning.Piaget: Peer-to-peer interaction is the best source of motivation to learn.Vygotsky: Adult or older person-to-child interactions as ideal sources of learning.
19 ReviewPiaget and Vygotsky suggest a paradigm of cognitive development through physical and social stimulation.Cognitive development requires sensory stimulation; high variability in sensory experiences leads to high levels of cognitive development.
20 Review Children should have opportunities to play. Students should not be assisted with that which they are able to do by themselves; they should be assisted to achieve slightly more than they might on their own.