2 Background Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) Russian psychologist Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory (unknown until 1962)Focused on any connection between people and the experiences they shared or had
3 Overview of Theory Two levels of cultural development Major Themes SocialIndividualMajor ThemesThe More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)Social InteractionDefined stages of development
4 Cultural Development – Social Full cognitive development requires social interactionGain knowledge through this stepFormal educationInteractions with othersPast experiencesTwo kinds of learningSpontaneous
5 Cultural Development- Individual How they use the information they gained from the social development stageAbility to use an acquired skill setPointing a fingerTwo kinds of learningScientific
6 The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) Anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learnerParentCoachTeacherSiblingsUsually has to do with a respect to a particular task, process, or conceptScaffolding
7 The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under “MKO” and the student’s ability solving the problem independently.According to Vygotsky, learning occurred in this zone.
8 Social Interaction“Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).”Fundamental role in the process of cognitive development.
9 Defined StagesHis theory states that development is limited to a certain range at a certain age.This development is assisted by continued social interaction.
10 Problems/ Criticisms Too optimistic Gender not considered Impractical- requires one on one education