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Lev Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory

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1 Lev Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory
Presented by Christina Svec EDU 1107

2 Who is Lev Vygotsky? Lev Vygotsky was born in Russia in 1896.
He died at the young age of 37 from tuberculosis. Due to his early death, most of his theories were left undeveloped. His work in the last 10 years of his life has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development.

3 Overview of Social Development Theory
Social Interaction Influences Cognitive Development Biological and Cultural Development do not occur in Isolation Language plays a major role in Cognitive Development

4 Areas were social interaction can influence cognitive development…
Engagement between the teacher and student Physical space and arrangement in learning environment Meaningful instruction in small or whole groups Scaffolding/Reciprocal teaching strategies Zone of Proximal Development

5 What is the Zone of Proximal Development?
Levels of Development what I can’t do what I can do with help what I can do The zone of proximal development is the area of learning that a more knowledgeable other (MKO) assists the student in developing a higher level of learning. The goal is for the MKO to be less involved as the student develops the necessary skills. Vygotsky describes it as “the distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers” (Vygotsky, 1978).

6 Scaffolding Vygotsky defined scaffolding instruction as the “role of teachers and others in supporting the learners development and providing support structures to get to that next stage or level” (Raymond, 2000). Teachers provide scaffolds so that the learner can accomplish certain tasks they would otherwise not be able to accomplish on their own (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000). The goal of the educator is for the student to become an independent learner and problem solver (Hartman, 2002).

7 Reciprocal Teaching Reciprocal Teaching is used to improve a students ability to learn from text through the practice of four skills: summarizing, clarifying, questioning, and predicting. Reciprocal Teaching summarizing clarifying questioning predicting

8 Biological & Cultural Development
Vygotsky (1978) states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later on the individual level; first, between people and then inside the child. This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals.” Simplified: community plays a central role in the process of “making meaning” (McLeod, 2007).

9 Language Language plays a central role in mental development
Language is the main means by which adults transmit information to children Language itself becomes a very powerful tool of intellectual adaptation

10 How can we practically apply Vygotsky’s theories to our everyday classrooms?

11 Physical Arrangement in the Classroom
Arrange student desks in clusters. Arrange other work spaces for peer instruction, collaboration, and small group instruction.

12 Scaffolding Strategies
Motivate the child’s interest in the task. Break the task down into manageable steps. Provide some direction to keep the child focused. Reduce factors that cause frustration. Model and define the expectations of the activity.

13 Reciprocal Strategies
Use props to illustrate each of the four skills to be practiced: summarizing, clarifying, questioning, and predicting. Have students buddy read and practicing using the reciprocal strategies.

14 Lesson Content Create lessons that engage student interest and give them a basis for language when socially interacting. Use technology and hands on activities to further engage them in learning.

15 change in your classroom
Discussion Question to improve your students social development skills and move them to a higher level of learning? change in your classroom What can you

16 References Bransford, J., Brown, A., & Cocking, R. (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, and Experience & School. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Hartman, H. (2002). Scaffolding & Cooperative Learning. Human Learning and Instruction (pp ). New York: City College of City University of New York. McLeod, S. (2007). Simply Psychology; Retrieved February 28, 2012, from Raymond, E. (2000). Cognitive Characteristics. Learners with Mild Disabilities (pp ). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, A Pearson Education Company. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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