2 Behaviorism Theory What really is behaviorism? John Watson: The Founder of behaviorism theoryInfluential people and their theoriesPhilosophy of UtilitarianismPleasure/PainBehaviorism is a field of psychology which gives focus mainly on researching and exploring the ways from which behaviors can be learned and shaped by our environment. John Watson is the founder of behaviorism. In 1913, the book titled “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views” was published by John Watson. This book has started the now considered as the behaviorist movement. B. F. Skinner was the most dominant name when it comes to the study of behaviorism. Skinner assumed that behavior was influenced by the environment and society. But this also can be influenced by positive and negative reinforcements of our actions. Watson stated that we as people are born equal in psychological aspects of life. John Locke assumed that we are all equal at birth which is referred to as “tabula rasa” or blank slate. Locke also believed that our mind was bare at birth and our behaviors were just shaped by our environment and society.According to behaviorists, people are forced to learn to know the value of pleasure and prevent pain. The philosophy of Utilitarianism was brought forth during the 18th and 19th centuries. Utilitarianism provides one the idea that with a good society, bigger numbers of people have better feelings of happiness and pleasure. Many behaviorists believe in the theory of utilitarianism. This has the idea that people can be changed through education. Pleasure and pain are part of the daily education that man has to go through everyday. According to McAdams (2006), “a great deal of learning occurs through the association of actions with either positive (pleasurable) or negative (painful) events.”
3 Classical Conditioning What is this called classical conditioning?Ivan Pavlov’s dog experiment in classical conditioningUnconditioned stimulus and Conditioned StimulusUnconditioned Response and Conditioned ResponseNow, the idea of classical conditioning shall be discussed. According to McAdams (2006) classical conditioning takes place when neutral stimulus turn out to be habituated through its association with an unconditioned stimulus. This then gives a result of the conditioned stimulus eventually producing the same kind of reaction shaped by the unconditioned stimulus. Ivan Pavlov’s experiments in classical conditioning are the best examples to give on this matter. In his experiments, he used a dog and puts it in a harness with a tube in the dog’s mouth to accumulate saliva. Pavlov then showed the dog some meat (unconditioned stimulus), the dog then started to produce more saliva (unconditioned response). Pavlov then started to incorporate the meat with the sound of a metronome (conditioned stimulus). After pairing the two, the dog started to produce saliva at just the sound of the metronome (conditioned response). This experiment explains that the dog begns to associate these two factors together. If one factor is already seen (metronome), the other one will be expected by the dog (meat).
4 Classical Conditioning This chart will illustrate the procedure done in the Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment with the salivating dog.
5 Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning: What is it? Positive/Negative consequences8 ideas of operant conditioning:Positive Reinforcer, Negative Reinforcer, Positive Punishment, Negative Punishment, Extinction, Shaping, Continuous Reinforcement, Partial ReinforcementOperant Conditioning goes by the idea that behavior can be influenced by the consequences. If there are positive consequences, then the behavior can be expected to be repeated. But if negative consequences are present, the repetition of the behavior is less likely to happen. Here are the eight ideas of Operant Conditioning.Positive Reinforcer – when an action is given a positive response thus making the action to be repeated.Negative Reinforcer – when the action is given a negative response making the subject refrain from repeating the action again.Positive Punishment – if a negative behavior is done and a punishment is given after. With the presence of the punishment, the action has less tendencies to happen again.Negative Punishment – This is a punishment that eliminates a stimuli due to a bad behavior.Extinction – This is when a positive behavior has been resistant for a long period of time to then go without the positive reinforcement. Without the anticipated positive response, the positive behavior is less possible to take place.Shaping – The support of specific behaviors that will sooner or later lead to an definitive response. After definitive response is attained, praise is only provided as a response and not for the behaviors that started to and completed up the definitive response.Continuous Reinforcement – This idea affirms that reinforcement is known after occurrence of a certain response. The reinforcement will make the response to be learned quickly.Partial Reinforcement – This idea is regarding not reinforcing each time a person executes a certain behavior. This idea is regarding the use of reinforcement according to a plan. There are two kinds of partial reinforcement identified as interval reinforcement and ratio reinforcement.
6 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Albert BanduraSocial-Learning TheoryObservational LearningSelf EfficacyAlbert Bandura was one of the known influential social-learning theorist. Bandura is a graduated from the University of Iowa. He is responsible for creating a highly recognized social learning theory that has actually changed the initial view on behaviorism. In this theory, the role of observation and cognitive processes are taken into consideration for the values of learning and performance. His theory also broadened to analysis of behaviorism by surrounding observational learning and self efficacy as other means to learn behavior. Bandura also assumed that environmental variables, person variables, and behavior itself can influence one another.
7 Observational Learning Badura’s four step processAttentional ProcessesRetention ProcessesMotor Reproduction ProcessesMotivational ProcessesBandura assumed that the main beliefs of behaviorism such as reinforcement and punishment have something to do with performance than learning. Bandura stated that rewards and punishments can shape what people will do but will not actually signify what people will learn. Bandura believed learning takes place but not totally related to pleasure and pain. He believed that rewards were not needed for one to learn. Bandura also stated that people will only learn through observation of other’s behavior and world. This form of learning is identified as observational learning. He believed that people can learn by observing as well as copy the behaviors that they often see in others that have a desired consequence. Bandura came up with a theoretical scheme for observational learning and imitation. This procedure has four steps.Attentional Processes-The procedure initiate a person observing another model person or his behavior. (Modeling stimuli: individuality, emotional valence, complication, occurrence, practical value. Observer characteristics: Sensory capacities, Arousal level, Perceptual set, Past reinforcement.)Retention Processes-This step needs a person that has the skill to distinguish and understand what they are seeing in the model person or behavior if learning is to take place. (Symbolic coding, Symbolic rehearsal, Motor rehearsal)Motor Reproduction Processes- This is the skill to be competent to execute the observed behavior. (Physical capabilities, accessibility of component responses, Self-observation of imitations, accurateness of feedback)Motivational Processes- This is the step that establishes if the person desires to copy the behavior. It will be experienced by all over steps as they will have to complete and recognize the behavior and how to copy it in order to execute it. (External reinforcement Vicarious reinforcement Self-reinforcement)
8 Self Efficacy Self efficacy: What is It? Four principles Performance AccomplishmentsVicarious ExperienceVerbal PersuasionEmotional arousalHigh self efficacy compared to low self efficacyThe main concept of the Bandura’s social learning theory is actually Self efficacy. Self efficacy can be described as a person’s belief on their ability to become successful in every situation, according to Bandura. A person is most likely to display high self efficacy when there is high confidence in their abilities to perform the action or task. A positive outcome expectancy is when a person thinks a behavior will produce in a positive preferred result. A negative outcome expectancy is when a person thinks that a behavior will not create a preferred outcome.There are four main principles of self efficacy:Performance Accomplishments – These are history of events of failure or success when trying to achieve big ambitions. With the familiarity of both failure and success, a person will increase a higher self efficacy.Vicarious Experience – This is when a person is an observer to other people’s success and failures. The person is capable of comparing the circumstances with their own and be able to guess their own personal capability.Verbal Persuasion – This is when a person has been told by others that they cannot execute a certain duty. This could either toughen or deteriorate a person’s self efficacy though the influence is weak.Emotional Arousal – This is a person’s thoughts of their own efficacy that in effect could cause varied emotions about a certain duty at hand. If the person is certain in their own efficacy they will practice positive feelings about the duty at hand. If the person is not certain in their own efficacy, they will show negative emotions about the duty at hand such as irritation, apprehension or lose train of thought.This has stated that having high self efficacy can improve one’s life. This can also strengthen one’s immune system. If a person has high self efficacy, he or she is less likely to experience or feel high levels of anxiety, anger, depression and fear. If a person is faced with these feelings, a person has low self efficacy. These feelings will also occur more often which can eventually affect the personality and physicality of a person. In the process, building one’s sense of self efficacy can actually be very stressful.
9 Conclusion Behaviorism wrap up Social-Learning Theory wrap up Human Behavior studiesBehaviorism affirms that behaviors were only shaped by reinforcement, punishment and pleasure. The social learning theory states that behavior is not only learned through these issues, but also by observation and self efficacy. Behavior is a difficult issue, and there is still much to study in this area. The understanding of human behavior will carry on to develop and grow as the years pass.
10 ReferencesMcAdams, D. (2006). The person: A new introduction to personality psychology. (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Social Learning Theory Chart retrieved from ory_workbook/elaboration%20theory%20di agram.jpgClassical conditioning image retrieved from MSN Encarta on from _-1_1/classical_conditioning.html