Presentation on theme: "HOW DO WE LEARN? Conditioning –process of learning associations Classical conditioning- we learn to associate two stimuli and anticipate events. In classical."— Presentation transcript:
HOW DO WE LEARN? Conditioning –process of learning associations Classical conditioning- we learn to associate two stimuli and anticipate events. In classical conditioning: Unlearned naturally occurring response (UR) to the unconditioned stimulus (US) Learned (conditioned) response (CR) to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS). Ivan Pavlov’s experiments with salivation of dogs.
How much time should elapse between the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus? Just a ½ second works well. Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous recovery Discrimination Generalization Respondent behavior-Skinner’s term for behavior learned through classical conditioning. John Garcia- experiments on taste aversion
Criticisms Pavlov and Watson underestimated the importance of cognitive processes (thoughts, perceptions, expectations) Underestimated the impact of biological constraints on a person’s or animal’s learning capacity. Explains why classical conditioning treatments are not always successful.
Another name for classical conditioning is: Respondent conditioning Pavlovian conditioning Examples: Pavlov’s studies with dogs and salivation John Garcia’s research with wolves. Watson’s experiment with “Little Albert”
Operant conditioning- we learn to associate a response (our behavior) and its consequence. We may repeat acts that are followed by good results and avoid acts followed by bad results. Edward Thorndike’s “Law of Effect”- rewarded behavior is likely to recur These two types of conditioning may occur together –associative learning
Types of reinforcers Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement-not punishment, but rather it removes a punishing aversive event but rather it removes a punishing aversive event Primary reinforcer Secondary reinforcer (conditioned) Immediate reinforcer Delayed reinforcer
Reinforcement schedules Fixed-ratio schedule Variable-ratio schedule Fixed-interval schedule Variable-interval schedule All of the above are intermittent (partial) reinforcement reinforcement There is also continuous reinforcement- learning occurs rapidly, but extinction occurs rapidly as well. occurs rapidly as well.
Punishment acts to _________the behavior. decrease Physical punishment may increase aggressiveness by demonstrating the aggression is a way to cope with problems. We also learn through observational learning -learning through others’ experiences and examples. Albert Bandura’s “bobo doll” experiment demonstrated that people may model (imitate) what they see others doing.