THE CRUSADES 1096-1291 A Quest for the Holy Land
Crusades A long series or Wars between Christians and Muslims They fought over control of Jerusalem which was called the Holy Land because it was the region where Jesus had lived, preached and died
Causes of the Crusades Muslim Turks captured Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire Muslims stopped Christians from Visiting Holy Land Christian pilgrims were attacked Byzantine Empire feared attack on Constantinople
The Call to Arms Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus asked for help from West. Pope Urban II called for the defeat of the Turks, returning the Holy Land to the Christians. If you die assured place in heaven.
Who Answered the Call? Feudal Lords Knights Peasants Fueled by religious fervor
Based on this map, which holy city was the destination of the first three? How about 4 th crusade?
The First Crusade (1096-1099) Peasant army Ill prepared Lacked military equipment Many killed by Muslim Turks Knights Succeeded in capturing Jerusalem, July 15, 1099
Second Crusade (1147-1149) After victory many Christians went back home. The Turks eventually took back much of the territory and re-captured Jerusalem. 2 nd Crusade was unsuccessful in taking back Jerusalem.
Second Crusade (1147-1149) Saladin leads the Muslim Turks to victory, defeating the Christians * He was considered a very wise ruler. He was known for his sometimes kind treatment of fallen enemies. Many Christians saw him as a model of knightly chivalry.
Third Crusade (1189-1192) King Richard of England and Saladin fight several battles, eventually convinces Turks to allow Christians to visit the Holy Land Well known in Literature, due to Robin Hood
Fourth Crusade (1199-1204) Do not reach Holy Land Western – East Christian relations strained Crusaders sack Constantinople in 1204! In 1453, when Constantinople is under siege by Turks, Byzantine Empire does not bother to ask Rome / West for help.
Crusades Continue Through 1200’s Several more crusades attempted with no victories for the Christians Children’s crusade of 1212, - 30,000 soldiers - many of them under 12 years old – Never made it to the Holy Land Most died from cold, Hunger or sold into slavery The last crusader cities fell in 1291.
Crusades Die Out Lack of interest Rising European prosperity Repeated military defeats Pope influence lessened, tired of religious call to crusade
Results of the Crusades Fatal weakening of Byzantine Empire after Constantinople sacked Vast increase in cultural horizons for many Europeans. Stimulated Mediterranean trade. Need to transfer large sums of money for troops and supplies led to development of banking techniques. Romantic and imaginative literature.
Results of the Crusades Knowledge introduced to Europe Heavy stone masonry, construction of castles and stone churches. Siege technology, tunneling, sapping. Moslem minarets adopted as church spires Weakening of nobility, rise of merchant classes Enrichment was primarily from East to West--Europe had little to give in return Distrust (mild term) between religions
Assignment: Crusades Storyboard Use your notes, power-point presentations and the Internet to create a storyboard for the period of The Crusades. Use your creative ideas to depict this period of history; however, you cannot include everything so you must limit your ideas to a “storyboard”. The storyboard is a sheet of paper with 6 panels. You are making a pitch to The History Channel to make your movie idea about The Crusades. Think “Mad Men”, think Bayeux Tapestry, think cartoon. Very few words, pictures/drawings to show the history.
Assignment: Crusades Storyboard Focus on the Military aspect of the crusades However, you must include in the first storyboard: The causes of the crusades And the last storyboard must focus on: The impact of the crusades on current West and Middle East relations.
Assignment: Storyboard The Crusades Storyboard Homework assignment worth: 15 points 5 points for historical accuracy 5 points for creativity (you are trying to sell your movie idea. Not grading on drawing ability, but on how innovative or creative your storyboard is) 5 points for effort (does it look like you spent 5 minutes or put real thought and effort) Maximum points = 15 Minimum points = 3