Presentation on theme: "East Meets West The Crusades Crusades A long series or Wars between Christians and Muslims They fought over control of Jerusalem which was called the."— Presentation transcript:
Crusades A long series or Wars between Christians and Muslims They fought over control of Jerusalem which was called the Holy Land because it was the region where Jesus had lived, preached and died
Causes: Adventure After Christianization of the Vikings, Slavs, and Magyars there was an entire class of warriors who now had very little to do but fight amongst themselves and terrorize the peasant population. A plea for help from the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I in opposing Muslim attacks thus appealed to their sense of adventure.
Causes: Papal Politics Roman-Byzantine Rivalry Cluniac (Benedictine) reform caused the church in the West to be more attentive to business and provided impetus to attempt to reassert control The Great Schism, 1064, was a division of Christianity into Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic. The primary cause was a dispute over papal authority.
Causes: European Expansionism In the Battle of Hastings in 1066, William the Conqueror (from Normandy) defeated England and brought unity and strength to that country. After the capture of Toledo from the Muslims in 1087, it became the residence of the kings of Castile and the ecclesiastical center of the whole of Spain The Normans captured Sicily from the Muslims in 1091 and paved the way for the unification of that country.
Causes: Muslim Advances Events in Moslem World The Battle of Manzikert, 1071, resulted in the defeat of the Byzantine Empire and the capture of the Emperor by the Seljuk Turks (muslims). The Byzantines also lost Anatolia to the Turks. The Turks disrupted pilgrim traffic.
Causes of the Crusades Muslim Turks captured Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire Muslims stopped Christians from Visiting Holy Land Christian pilgrims were attacked Byzantine Empire feared attack on Constantinople
The Call to Arms Pope Urban II called for the defeat of the Turks, returning the Holy Land to the Christians
Who Answered the Call? Feudal Lords Knights Peasants
The First Crusade (1096-1099) Peasant army – Untrained – Lacked military equipment – Many killed by Muslim Turks Knights – Succeeded in capturing Jerusalem
Second Crusade (1147-1149) After victory many Christians went back home. The Turks eventually took back much of the territory. King of France and Emperor of Germany sent troops to stop the Turks.
Second Crusade (1147-1149) Saladin leads the Muslim Turks to victory, defeating the Christians * He was considered a very wise ruler. He was known for his sometimes kind treatment of fallen enemies. Many Christians saw him as a model of knightly chivalry.
Third Crusade (1189-1192) King Richard of England convinces the Turks to allow Christians to visit the Holy Land
Crusades Continue Through 1200’s Several more crusades attempted with no victories for the Christians Children’s crusade, - 30,000 soldiers - many of them under 12 years old – Never made it to the Holy Land
The Crusades Died Out Lack of interest, rising European prosperity Repeated military defeats
Effects of Crusades Fatal weakening of Byzantine Empire Vast increase in cultural horizons for many Europeans. Stimulated Mediterranean trade. Need to transfer large sums of money for troops and supplies led to development of banking techniques. Romantic and imaginative literature.
Effects of Crusades Knowledge introduced to Europe Heavy stone masonry, construction of castles and stone churches. Siege technology, tunneling, sapping. Moslem minarets adopted as church spires Weakening of nobility, rise of merchant classes Enrichment was primarily from East to West--Europe had little to give in return.