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Emotion Module 12. Emotions Whole-organism responses, involving: –Physiological arousal –Expressive behaviors –Conscious experience.

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Presentation on theme: "Emotion Module 12. Emotions Whole-organism responses, involving: –Physiological arousal –Expressive behaviors –Conscious experience."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emotion Module 12

2 Emotions Whole-organism responses, involving: –Physiological arousal –Expressive behaviors –Conscious experience

3 Debates in Emotion Research Which comes first, physiological arousal or the subjective experience of an emotion? Can we react emotionally before appraising a situation, or does thinking always precede emotion?

4 Theories of Emotion: Historical Approaches Module 12: Emotion

5 Common Sense Theory Emotion-arousing stimulus leads to a conscious feeling (fear, anger) and a physiological response. Seeing an angry dog triggers feelings of fear and physical responses such as trembling.

6 James-Lange Theory An emotion-arousing stimulus in the environment triggers a physiological reaction. Our awareness of the physiological reaction leads to our experience of an emotion.


8 Cannon-Bard Theory An emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers both a physiological response and the experience of an emotion.


10 Two-Factor Theory Emotions involve two factors: –A physiological arousal –A cognitive label of the arousal Also called the Schachter-Singer Theory


12 Robert Zajonc (1923- ) Suggested that not all emotions involve deliberate thinking Therefore, cognition is not necessary for all emotions Some emotions skip the thinking part of the brain

13 Paths to Emotional Responses

14 Richard Lazarus (1922- ) Believed some emotions do not require conscious thought However, there must be a minimum of unconscious thought.

15 Fear: A Closer Look Module 12: Emotion

16 Autonomic Nervous System The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs Monitors the autonomic functions Controls breathing, blood pressure, and digestive processes Divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

17 Sympathetic Nervous System The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats Fight or flight response

18 Parasympathetic Nervous System The part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body Brings the body back down to a relaxed state

19 Autonomic Nervous System

20 The Expression of Emotion: Nonverbal Communication Module 12: Emotion

21 Nonverbal Communication Communicating feelings without words: --Facial expressions –Tone of voice –Hand gestures Also called “body language”

22 The Expression of Emotion: Gender and Cultural Effects on Emotion Module 12: Emotion

23 Gender Effects Women are better at reading nonverbal communication of emotions. Women tend to express emotions more than men do.

24 Display Rules The cultural rules governing how and when a person may express emotion Rules greatly vary from culture to culture.

25 Facial Expressions Paul Ekman studied facial expressions in an attempt to determine if they are inborn or culturally based.

26 Which Baby is Which? Anger, Disgust, Fear, Interest, Joy, Surprise, Sadness

27 JoyAngerInterest DisgustSurpriseSadnessFear

28 Ekman’s Facial Expression Study Insert “Ekman’s Studies on Facial Expression of Emotion” Video #28 from Worth’s Digital Media Archive for Psychology. Instructions for importing the video file can be found in the ‘Readme’ file on the CD-ROM.

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