Presentation on theme: "DO NOW Prepare your reading notes to be checked (EVERYONE). Then, briefly describe the three types of Industrial/Organizational Psychology."— Presentation transcript:
DO NOW Prepare your reading notes to be checked (EVERYONE). Then, briefly describe the three types of Industrial/Organizational Psychology.
Emotion AP Psychology Ms. Desgrosellier 4.16.2010
Introduction to Emotion Objective: SWBAT identify the three components of emotion, and contrast the James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, and two- factor theories of emotion.
Introduction to Emotion emotion: a response of the whole organism, involving physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience.
Theories of Emotion Does physiological arousal precede or follow your emotional experience?
Theories of Emotion James-Lange theory: the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion- arousing stimuli. Proposed by Carl Lange and William James (pioneering psychologist). e.g. your feeling of fear follows your body’s response.
Theories of Emotion Cannon-Bard theory: the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion. proposed by Walter Cannon and Philip Bard. e.g. your heart begins pounding at the same time you experience fear; one does not cause the other.
Theories of Emotion two factor theory: Schachter-Singer’s theory that to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal. Proposed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer. An emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of the arousal.
Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System Objective: SWBAT describe the role of the autonomic nervous system during emotional arousal.
Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System Your autonomic nervous system prepares your body to respond to a threat. e.g. extra glucose in your blood stream and increased respiration. the Autonomic Nervous System controls your arousal.
Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System The sympathetic nervous system directs the adrenal glands release the stress hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norephinephrine (noradrenaline).
Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System This hormonal surge increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels. When the crisis has passed, the parasympathetic nervous system inhibits further release of stress hormones, but arousal diminishes slowly.
Arousal and Performance Objective: SWBAT discuss the relationship between arousal and performance.
Arousal and Performance Prolonged arousal is hard on the body, but many times it is adaptive. The level of arousal for optimal performance varies for different tasks.
Arousal and Performance However, we usually perform best when we are moderately aroused. e.g. students perform better on tests with less arousal, but a basketball player shooting free throws might perform better under more arousal because it is not an automatic skill.
Physiological Similarities Among Specific Emotions Objective: SWBAT name three emotions that involve similar physiological arousal.
Physiological Similarities Among Specific Emotions Sexual arousal, fear, and anger have the same physiological responses. They may feel different to each of us, but the same basic physiological responses are the same.
Physiological Differences Among Specific Emotions Objective: SWBAT describe some physiological and brain-pattern indicators of specific emotions.
Physiological Differences Among Specific Emotions Finger temperatures and hormone secretions differ between fear and rage. Fear and joy stimulate different face muscles. Observers watching and mimicking fearful faces show more amygdala brain activity than those watching angry faces.
Physiological Differences Among Specific Emotions Negative emotions show more right frontal lobe activity. Positive moods show more left frontal lobe activity. This may be related to the left frontal lobes large around of dopamine receptors.
Physiological Differences Among Specific Emotions There is similar general autonomic arousal across many emotions (e.g. similar heart rate). This rejects the James-Lange theory of emotion.
Physiological Differences Among Specific Emotions There are also physiological and brain differences that help explain why we experience them so differently. This supports the James-Lange theory and has created new interest for the perspective.
Cognition and Emotion Emotions affect our thinking. Can we experience emotion apart from thinking or do we become what we think? This is a circular question with no clear answer.
Cognition Can Define Emotion Objective: SWBAT explain how the spillover effect influences our experience of emotions.
Cognition Can Define Emotion spillover effect: sometimes our arousal response spills over into our response to the next event. e.g. getting a job offer after returning from a run – would you feel more elated than normal?
Cognition Can Define Emotion Research has shown that arousal can be experienced as one emotion or another very different one, depending on how we interpret and label it. People who are insulted after raising arousal by having them pedal an exercise bike will find it easy to attribute their arousal to the provocation. Research supports that arousal can spill from one emotion to another.
Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion Objective: SWBAT distinguish the two alternative pathways that sensory stimuli may travel when triggering an emotional response.
Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion Sometimes we experience an unlabeled emotion. Research on subliminal stimuli has shown that we can be influenced by stimuli even before cognition occurs. There is a pathway between the eye or ear via the thalamus to the amygdala (our emotional control center). This allows a super fast emotional response before our intellect notices.
Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion Because the amygdala sends more neural projections than it receives, it is easier for our feelings to hijack our thinking than for our thinking to rule our emotions. Emotions arise when we appraise an event as beneficial or harmful to our well-being, whether we truly know it is or not. Complex emotions come from our interpretations and expectations.
DO NOW What part of the brain is known as our “emotional control center?” Which comes first: emotion or cognition?
Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion Some emotional responses involve no conscious thinking. e.g. simple likes, dislikes, and fears Such responses are difficult to alter by changing our thinking.
Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion Other emotions are greatly affected by our interpretations, memories, and expectations. e.g. depression, hatred, and love. For these emotions, learning to think more positively about ourselves and the world around us helps us feel better.