Presentation on theme: "Identify the institutions which have a stake in the"— Presentation transcript:
1 Identify the institutions which have a stake in the LEARNING OBJECTIVESIdentify the institutions which have a stake in theprocess of food security policy formulation andimplementation.Define the role and functions of the relevantstakeholders in food security policy formulation andIndicate possible arrangements for a functionalinstitutional set-up to ensure effective coordination offood security information and actions.
2 Food security is an overarching and cross-cutting issue INTRODUCTIONFood security is an overarching and cross-cutting issueThe formulation and implementation of FSPs depend on an active involvement of various government institutions as well as other key stakeholders…TRAINER’S NOTESFood security is an overarching and cross-cutting issue, involving aspects of food production and supply, access to food, food supply stability, food utilization and nutrition.Therefore, the formulation and implementation of food security policies depend on an active involvement of various government institutions as well as other stakeholders who are concerned with these different issues.This lesson presents the typical role and functions of relevant ministries and governmental institutions as well as of other relevant stakeholders, such as local and international NGOs, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) as well as UN organizations and bilateral donors.
3 ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS Government institutions involved in Food Security Policy formulation and implementation:Ministry of Planning/National Planning CommissionMinistry of AgricultureOther MinistriesLocal Government InstitutionsTRAINER’S NOTESOn the next slides we will indicate the roles and functions of the different government institutions involved in Food Security Policy (FSP) formulation and implementation.
4 1 2 Integrating FSP issues into other national ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONSMinistry of Planning / National Planning CommissionFSP forms integral part of a National Policy & Planning Framework (NPPF). There are two principal ways to achieve such integration:Integrating FSP issuesinto other nationaldevelopment policies andstrategies.Food SecurityPolicies1Food Security Policy2TRAINER’S NOTES1. Integration of food security policy issues into overall and sectoral national development policies and strategies of a country, e.g. Poverty Reduction Strategy and agricultural and social sector policies and strategies.2. Preparing a specific “Food Security Policy” document, incorporating all aspects which are relevant for improving food security and taking into account the linkages which exist to overall and sectoral development policies and strategies of the country.Typically, the Ministry of Planning or a National Planning Commission is mandated to establish a NPPF. They have to be actively involved in the process of policy formulation, in order to ensure that the food security policies are well integrated into a consistent NPPFPreparing a specific FoodSecurity Policy document.
5 Contributing to sufficient and stable food supplies; and ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONSMinistry of AgricultureIt plays a key role in the process.It is directly concerned with various core aspects of FS:Contributing to sufficient and stable foodsupplies; andImproving access to food.TRAINER’S NOTESThe Ministry of Agriculture has a key role to play in the process of formulation andimplementation of FSPs.It is directly concerned with various core aspects of food security:Contributing to sufficient and stable food supplies by promoting agriculture and food production through application of all relevant instruments, such as research, extension, training, technology development, input supply, natural resources conservation, irrigation, etc.Improving access to food for the poor rural population who often constitute the poorest sections of the population and largely depend on agriculture as their major source of subsistence. Focusing on the small and poor farmers, the instruments of promoting agricultural development are to be designed in a way that they are adapted to the conditions of the poor farmers and can be successfully applied by them.
6 ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS In many countries, the Ministry of Agriculture is mandated to coordinate and promote food security in generalExample: Institutional Set-Up for Coordinating FSP in LesothoThe Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MAFS) assumes an overall coordinating role in food security matters.Within its conventional mandate, MAFS is responsible for all fields of agricultural development contributing to access, availability and stability.TRAINER’S NOTESIn many countries, the Ministry of Agriculture is, apart from dealing with agricultural sector issues, also mandated to coordinate and promote food security in general.See Learners’ Notes: Annex 1 - Example - Institutional Set-Up for Coordinating Food Security Policies in LesothoPros and cons of entrusting the Ministry of Agriculture with overall coordination of FPS:There are pros and cons to the approach of entrusting the Ministry of Agriculture with overall coordination of food security policies.Notwithstanding its genuine mandate to deal with some core subjects of food security which are particularly relevant in an agriculture-based economy and society, food security policies also address a variety of issues which fall under the mandate of other ministries.Therefore, the question arises whether the Ministry of Agriculture, as a line ministry, has the authority and power to actively involve and effectively coordinate other ministries in the process of food security policy formulation and implementation.There are pros and cons to the approach of entrusting the Ministry of Agriculture with overall coordination of FSPs.
7 Food Security Policy issues ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONSOther MinistriesMinistryFood Security Policy issuesMinistry of Economic DevelopmentPoverty alleviation.Ministry of EducationSchool feeding; school gardens; inclusion of food security aspects (nutrition, home gardening etc.) in school and adult education curricula.Ministry of EnvironmentNatural resource conservation and rehabilitation for promoting sustainable development and long-term food security.Ministry of Foreign Affairs/ International CooperationNegotiations and agreements with development partners (UN organizations, donors, NGOs) on support to food security policies and programmes.Ministry of FinanceBudget allocations and approval for food security policy interventions.TRAINER’S NOTESTaking into account the overarching and cross-sectoral nature of food security policies, a number of further ministries and government institutions are involved in the process of policy formulation and implementation.The actual name and the specific functions to be fulfilled by a specific ministry, and the distribution of functions/mandates between different ministries, may vary from country to country.The tables on this and next slide list ministries and typical functions related to Food Security Policy issues.
8 Food Security Policy issues ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONSOther MinistriesMinistryFood Security Policy issuesMinistry of HealthNutrition /child nutrition, e.g. Mother and Child Health Care and Nutrition; (supplementary) child feeding programmes; also: nutrition education, sanitation.Ministry of Labour/ WorksEmployment generation- / public works- / cash-for-work, food-for-work-programmes.Ministry of Marketing & TradeFood price and marketing regulations; food export / import regulations; marketing organizations and infrastructure; cooperatives; subsidies.Ministry of Social Affairs/ Women/ YouthSocial safety nets; social protection of vulnerable groups; special programmes for (particular groups of) women and youth with relevance for food security.TRAINER’S NOTESThe table on this and previous slide list ministries and typical functions related to Food Security Policy issues.
9 ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS Disaster preparedness and management is another important field of food security policies.Often a special agency is mandated with this function.UN structures may assume government role also with respect to food security policies.TRAINER’S NOTESDisaster preparedness and management is another important field of food security policies.Often a special agency or authority under the auspices of a ministry or the Primary Minister’s office is mandated with this function.In countries under humanitarian emergencies and with weak government structures, UN structures (e.g. Task Force, Sector groups) may assume government role also with respect to food security policies.
10 Provincial, district and community administrations: ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONSLocal Government InstitutionsProvincial, district and community administrations:generate data and information on the FS situation,identify and articulate acute food security problems;are responsible for the implementation of food security policy measures.TRAINER’S NOTESProvincial, district and community administrations play an important role in FSP formulation and implementation, by:generating data and information on the food security situation in their administrative areas;being able to identify and articulate acute food security problems at local level; andoften being responsible for and directly involved in the implementation of food security policy measures in the field.As at the central level, coordination structures and mechanisms among all relevant stakeholders (government and non-governmental bodies) to coordinate the implementation of FSP measures will have to be established also at local levels.
11 ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL STAKEHOLDERS Non-governmental stakeholders involved in Food Security Policy formulation and implementation:Local and International NGOsCivil society Organizations (CSOs)UN and donor agenciesTRAINER’S NOTESThe formulation of realistic food security policies and their effective implementation depends, to a large extent, on the active involvement of non-governmental actors in the policy formulation and implementation process.On the next slides we will indicate the roles and functions of the different non-governmental stakeholders involved in Food Security Policy (FSP) formulation and implementation.
12 They make substantial contributions in these fields: ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL STAKEHOLDERSLocal and International NGOsNGOLocal and international NGOs operate a wide spectrum of FS related programmes in a country.They make substantial contributions in these fields:advocacy and awareness creation of FS issues;mobilization and provision of material resources;technical assistance;training and capacity building;community mobilization.TRAINER’S NOTESLocal and international NGOs usually operate a wide spectrum of food security related programmes and projects in a country.Some examples of food security related programmes and projects are:- mother and child health care and nutrition programmes;- agricultural and rural development programmes and projects;- initiatives to support specific vulnerable groups, etc.They make substantial contributions towards the achievement of national food security objectives particularly in the following fields:advocacy and awareness creation of food security issues on the international andnational scene;mobilization and provision of material resources;technical assistance;training and capacity building (International NGOs often provide capacity building forlocal NGOs in project planning, management, monitoring and in technical fields);community mobilization.NGOs are particularly strong in applying grass-root and community based approaches and in their ability to explore and pilot innovative approaches.
13 CSOs need to be actively involved particularly in issues such as: ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL STAKEHOLDERSCSOCivil society Organizations (CSOs)CSOs need to be actively involved particularly in issues such as:Advocacy.Provision of expertise.Sensitization on relevant FS issues.Proposals for projects and programmes.Mobilization and organization of their members for action.Monitoring of the implementation and impacts of FSinterventions.TRAINER’S NOTESCSOs:Associations of Farmers, Fishermen, Traders, Workers, Transporters.Cooperatives.Women’s and Youth organizations.Religious organizations.CSOs are important stakeholders who need to be actively involved in the process of FSP formulation and implementation, particularly with regard to the following issues:Advocacy, articulating the interests and needs of their members and setting policypriorities.Providing expertise in their specific and relevant field of activity and competence.Sensitization of their members and launching public awareness campaigns onrelevant food security issues (child nutrition; consumption habits; cropdiversification; hygiene; home gardening; food marketing; food processing, etc.).Making proposals for projects and programmes to address the needs and interests oftheir members.Mobilizing and organizing their members for action.Monitoring the implementation and impacts of food security interventions
14 ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL STAKEHOLDERS UN and donor agenciesUN and donor agenciesContributions by UN agencies and bilateral donors, concern in particular:policy analysis and advice;provision of financial and material resources for FSrelated programmes;technical assistance;TRAINER’S NOTESThe implementation of Food Security Policies usually relies heavily on contributions by UN organizations and bilateral donors, particularly with regard to:Policy analysis and advice, drawing from experience in other countries.Provision of financial and material resources (e.g. food aid) for food security related programmes and projects.Technical assistance.In order to ensure a consistent policy framework and effective policy implementation, the UN Organizations and donors shall be involved through policy dialogue and play an active part in the process of policy formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
15 INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP AND COORDINATION MECHANISM Principles that should guide the establishment of an institutional set-up for the implementation of FSPs:Effective coordination and cooperationEfficient flow and exchange of FS informationResponsivenessTRAINER’S NOTESThe involvement of a wide range of state and non-state actors in the implementation of food security policies requires a functional institutional set-up.The establishment of this institutional set-up for the implementation of FSPs should be guided by the following principles:Effective coordination and cooperation among all relevant stakeholders, including different government departments and non-governmental actors, at all and between all levels (national, provincial, district, local).Efficient flow and exchange of food security information among the stakeholders at the different levels, and communication of pertinent food security information to high level policy makers.Responsiveness, i.e. clear mandates and responsibilities for decisions and actions to be taken (e.g. declaration of state of food emergency; food aid and food import operations; building up / release of stocks of food security reserves; launch and locations of feeding programmes, public works schemes; etc.).
16 INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP AND COORDINATION MECHANISM There are some institutional arrangements that can help to put the principles for the establishment of an institutional set-up into practice:Establishment of FS Focal Points at all relevant institutionsFormation of FS Committees at central and decentralized levelsTRAINER’S NOTESOn the next slides we will have a look at some institutional arrangements that can help to put the principles for the establishment of an institutional set-up into practice.
17 INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP AND COORDINATION MECHANISM Establishment of FS Focal Points at all relevant institutionsGovernmental institutions and NGOs designate a senior staff member as Food Security Focal Point.TRAINER’S NOTESGovernmental and non-governmental institutions and organizations concerned with food security related actions, appoint a senior staff member as Food Security Focal Point.The FSFP serves as internal and external link for coordination and communication in matters of food security and will represent the institution in Food Security Committees.The FSFP serves as internal and external link for coordination and communication in matters of FS and will represent the institution in Food Security Committees.
18 There are 3 types of Committees: INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP AND COORDINATION MECHANISMFormation of FS Committees at central and decentralized levelsThere are 3 types of Committees:Steering CommitteeTechnical CommitteeCommittees at decentralised levelsTRAINER’S NOTESThe establishment of FSCs is a common and suitable approach to ensure coordination, information exchange and effective policy implementation.Three types of committees can be distinguished:Steering CommitteeFor food security coordination at decentralized levels food security committees at the following levels may be established: provincial, district, and community.These committees should comprise representatives of government departments, NGOs, CSOs, community and field organizations concerned with food security issues, projects or programmes in the particular administrative area.Technical CommitteeA Food Security Technical Committee at national level, composed of representatives of relevant government institutions and other stakeholders (NGOs, CSOs, UN and donor agencies), to coordinate, facilitate and monitor policy implementation.Committees at decentralised levelsFor food security coordination at decentralized levels food security committees at the following levels may be established: provincial,district, and community.See Learners’ Notes: Table 3: Principles to be followed for the establishment of FSCsOne problem with FSCs is that they are often poorly resourced since they are rarely included in national budgets that tend to allocate resources to sectoral ministries rather than to cross-sectors structures/and initiatives.One problem with FSCs is that they are often poorly resourced
19 WHO SHOULD LEAD THE FSP PROCESS A super-ministerial institutional body with the authority to coordinate all institutions involvedA high level Steering Committee, possibly chaired by the Prime Minister’s Office, would fulfill such role.TRAINER’S NOTESThe cross-sectoral nature of food security calls for a super-ministerial institutional body which has the authority to coordinate all relevant government and other institutions that have a stake in food security, and to commit them to make their contributions to the formulation of a consistent and comprehensive food security policy and to their effective implementation.A high level Steering Committee, possibly chaired by the Prime Minister’s Office, would fulfill such role.Often the Ministry of Agriculture initiates the process of formulating and implementing food security policies.Experience shows that, in this case:aspects of food security which fall under the conventional mandate of the Ministry of Agriculture (food production, agriculture and livestock) are well catered for; whileother aspects (marketing, processing, social protection) may remain underrepresented and neglected.Often, however, it’is the Ministry of Agriculture that initiates the process of formulating and implementing FSPs.
20 WHO SHOULD LEAD THE FSP PROCESS ChairOffice of thePRIME MINISTERRepresentatives of other organizations relevant for food security policies(NGOs, CSOs, UN & donor agencies)Food Security Policy Steering CommitteeHigh ranking officialsMINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE &other MINISTRIESFood Security Focal PointsOther organizations concerned with food security issues at national level(NGOs, CSOs, UN & donor agencies)Food Security Technical CommitteeTRAINER’S NOTESThe graph presents a functional institutional framework with the main links of coordination for the implementation of Food Security Policies.Decentralized departments&Local Government InstitutionsFood Security Committees at decentralised levelsOther organizations concerned with food security issues at local levels
21 Ministry of Planning/National Planning Commission; SUMMARYThe institutions that have a stake in the process of food security policy formulation and implementation are:Ministry of Planning/National Planning Commission;Ministry of Agriculture;Other ministries and government institutions (different from countryto country); andLocal Government Institutions.The Non-Governmental stakeholders that should be involved in the FSP process are:Local and International NGOs;Civil society Organizations (CSOs); andUN and donor agencies.The involvement of a wide range of state and non-state actors in the implementation of FSPs requires a functional institutional set-up with well functioning coordination structures, ensuring an efficient flow and exchange of food security information and coordinated effective actions.