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Chapter 6 Training and Development in Sport Organizations.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Training and Development in Sport Organizations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Training and Development in Sport Organizations

2 Learning objectives Understand the significance of training and development in sport organisations Understand the aim of employee and volunteer learning Explain the training and development model Describe how effective training and development contributes to organisational development and enables strategic achievement of organisational goals

3 training and development Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees and volunteers Reduced turnover of employees and volunteers Increased employee and volunteer motivation Improved efficiencies in processes and procedures Enhanced capacity to adopt new technologies and methods Risk management in terms of better knowledge of compliance requirements

4 Common reasons for T&D To train about a specific topic or skill As a component of an individual’s overall professional development program When a performance appraisal indicates that performance improvement is required As part of a succession management or a strategic talent management process As a way of developing a common and shared mindset and approach to decision making amongst managers

5 learning orientations 1.Behavioural - changing observable behaviour 2.Cognitive - mental processes 3.Constructive - (i) the duration of the change is long-term; (ii) the change involves the content and structure of knowledge in memory or the behavior of the learner; and (iii) the cause of the change is the learner’s experience in the environment (Mayer, 1982)

6 The learning organisation “members are continuously deliberately learning new things. They apply what they learn to improve the product or service quality, the processes involved in making the product or providing the service, the quality of the environment in which employees work and the performance of members of the organisation” (Honold, 1991, p. 56)


8 Step 1: Training needs analysis (i) an organisational level analysis examines how a training and development program can support the strategic goals (ii) an operational task analysis identifies the nature of job tasks and the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform the job effectively (iii) an individual level analysis determines how well a person performs a job

9 Step 2: Setting training and learning goals will arise out of gaps and deficiencies identified in the preceding needs analysis indicate expectation in relation to understanding of relevant concepts, ability to perform a skill or demonstrate a change in behaviour Be written as observable and measurable learning objectives

10 Step 3: Designing training and development content, method of instruction, material, exercises and sequencing three general categories of skills and tasks: cognitive, interpersonal and psychomotor methods are chosen to match the skill or task required

11 Table 6.1 Common off the job training methods (adapted from Carey, 1999) LectureMostly an oral presentation, but may be supplemented with visual aids or handouts The technique is generally confined to presenting only the expert’s point of view Often used because it is easier to organize and a great deal of information can be presented in a short period of time Useful when there are a large group of trainees Lecture/DiscussionVariation of the lecture where the trainer increases trainee participation through facilitation of discussion at set times during the session Discussion is often initiated through the use of questions Trainer must plan the discussion and carefully choose the questions to lead the discussion DemonstrationOral explanations combined with visual activities Method demonstrations show processes, concepts and facts and are especially effective in teaching a skill that can be observed A result demonstration shows the outcome of some practice or innovation Group discussionTrainer leads the trainees as a group through a discussion of a given topic May or may not be preceded by a short explanatory lecture SymposiumA series of lectures presided over by a moderator Allows for the presentation of several points of view or several related topics PanelA dialogue among several experts sitting in front of the room A moderator coordinates the discussion Differs from a symposium because panel members have an opportunity to discuss and interact with each other’s ideas and views ForumFollowing one or more presentations, the audience interacts and discusses the topic(s), bringing up a wider range of views Discussion groups encourage/allow everyone to participate, even if the audience is large Case studiesInformation is given to the trainees detailing a specific situation or problem and the trainees are assigned (as individuals or discussion groups) the task of making recommendations for the most appropriate action to solve the problem Introduces a practical aspect to the training environment and creates a problem solving situation similar to that many trainees may face after returning to work Simulations and Games Ranges from simple individual or small group problem-solving experiential exercises to complex multi- dimensional business simulations. Contains a planned sequence of developmental activities Simulations allow the participant to observe the impact of their choices without the outcomes having any impact on the real organisation

12 Employee and volunteer development trainee positions, job rotation, leadership and management development programs, mentoring and coaching MentorCoach FocusIndividualEnhance Performance RoleFacilitator with no agendaSpecific agenda RelationshipSelf selectingAssigned Source of influencePerceived valuePosition Personal returnsAffirmation/learningTeamwork/performance ArenaLifeTask related

13 Leadership development on-the-job training, external short courses, special projects, residential courses and executive development courses Use of internal processes or externally by training companies, government bodies or universities Included team building and other related development initiatives

14 Career planning and development Business Strategy Vision Values Critical Success Factors Create and Implement Development Plan Success Profile Assess and Diagnose Measure and Monitor Success Performance Feedback Development Cycle  Development Dimensions International Inc, MMI. All rights reserved.

15 Step 4: Training and development evaluation Evaluation criteria LevelAssessment measurement 1. Reaction What does the participant feel about the training? Self-reporting of affective and attitudinal responses to the training 2. Learning What facts, knowledge, understandings, were gained? Performance tests 3. Behaviours What skills were developed? Supervisor rating 4. Results or effectiveness What results occurred?Utility analyses (Adapted from Kirkpatrick, 1976)

16 Summary A supportive learning environment & training and development can lead to improved employee satisfaction, retention and motivation Training - acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies Development - new attitudes and behaviours Effective training and development benefits the individual, other employees and volunteers, managers and aligns with strategic directions of the sport organisation

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