2 Learning ObjectivesUnderstand the importance of leadership training and development in organizationsUnderstand how to use coaching, mentoring, action learning, special assignments, simulations, and 360-degree feedbackUnderstand the benefits and limitations of the primary methods for leadership training and developmentUnderstand the findings in research conducted to evaluate the methods
3 Learning Objectives (Cont.) Understand the organizational conditions that facilitate leadership training and developmentUnderstand what leaders can do to encourage and facilitate the leadership development of their subordinatesUnderstand what leaders can do to develop their own skillsUnderstand why leader development should be integrated with human resource management and strategic planning
4 Designing Effective Training Clear learning objectivesClear, meaningful contentAppropriate sequencing of contentAppropriate mix of training methods
5 Designing Effective Training (Cont.) Opportunity for active practiceRelevant, timely feedbackHigh trainee self-confidenceAppropriate follow-up activities
7 Special Techniques for Leadership Training Behavior Role ModelingUses a combination of demonstrations and role playingBased on social learning theoryOne of the most effective training methods for managers
8 Special Techniques for Leadership Training (Cont.) Case DiscussionsClarify expectations for trainees.Ask questions to encourage and facilitate participation in the discussion.Emphasize the complexity of problems and the desirability of identifying alternative remedies.Use different diagnoses as an opportunity to demonstrate how people approach a problem with different assumptions, biases, and priorities.Ask trainees to relate the case to their work experience.Vary the composition of discussion groups to expose trainees to different points of view.
9 Special Techniques for Leadership Training (Cont.) Business Games and SimulationsRequires trainees to analyze complex problems and make decisionsEvidence of its usefulnessSerious limitations in most large-scale simulations
10 Learning from Experience Amount of ChallengeVariety of Tasks or AssignmentsRelevant Feedback
11 Table: Activities for Facilitating Leadership Development
15 Self-Help Activities Develop a personal vision of career objectives. Seek appropriate mentors.Seek challenging assignments.Improve self-monitoring.
16 Self-Help Activities (Cont.) Seek relevant feedback.Learn from mistakes.Learn to view events from multiple perspectives.Be skeptical of easy answers.
17 Supporting Leadership Training Before the Training Inform subordinates about opportunities to get trainingExplain why the training is important and beneficialAsk others who received the training to explain how it was useful
18 Supporting Leadership Training Before the Training (Cont.) Change the work schedule to make it easier to attend trainingGive a subordinate time off if necessary to prepare for the trainingSupport preparation activities such as distribution of questionnairesTell subordinates they will be asked to report on what was learned
19 Supporting Leadership Training After the Training Meet with the person to discuss what was learned and how it can be appliedJointly set specific objectives and action plans to use what was learnedMake assignments that require use of newly learned skillsHold periodic review sessions to monitor progress in applying learning
20 Supporting Leadership Training After the Training (Cont.) Provide praise for applying the skillsProvide encouragement and coaching when difficulties are encounteredInclude application of new skills in performance appraisalsSet an example for trainees by using the skills yourself
21 Facilitating Conditions for Development Support by the BossLearning ClimateDevelopmental Criteria for Placement Decisions
22 Creating a Learning Climate Make job assignments that allow people to pursue their interests and learn new skillsEstablish work schedules that allow enough free time to try new methodsProvide financial support for continuing education by employeesArrange special speakers and skills workshops for employeesEstablish a sabbatical program to allow employees to renew themselves
23 Creating a Learning Climate (Cont.) Establish a career counseling program to help employees develop self-awareness and find ways to achieve their full potentialEstablish voluntary skill assessment and feedback programsMake pay increases partly dependent on skill developmentProvide awards for innovations and improvementsUse symbols and slogans that embody values
24 Systems Perspective on Leadership Development Relationship Among ApproachesIntegrating Developmental ActivitiesFigure: Three ways to Acquire Leadership Competencies.