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© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.CHAPTER FOUR The Needs Analysis Process © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.LEARNING OUTCOMES Define needs analysis and describe the needs analysis process Define and explain how to conduct an organizational, task, and person analysis Define and describe the purpose of a cognitive task analysis and a team task analysis Describe the process of determining if training is the best solution to performance problems Describe the different methods and sources for conducting a needs analysis Describe the obstacles to conducting a needs analysis and how to overcome them © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN MODEL© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.NEEDS ANALYSIS A process to identify gaps or deficiencies in employee and organizational performance Goals: Identify differences between what is and what is desired or required in terms of results Compare the magnitude of gaps against the cost of reducing them or ignoring them © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESS© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESSFour Steps Step 1: A concern Sometimes referred to as an itch or a pressure point, something that causes managers to notice it © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESSStep 2: Importance Is it central to the effectiveness of the organization? Step 3: Consult stakeholders Involve stakeholders who have a vested interest in the process and outcomes of the needs analysis process © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESSStep 4: Data collection Collection of information from three levels of analysis Organization Task Person/Employee © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
NEEDS ANALYSIS OUTCOMESClarifies nature of performance gaps Determines if training and development is necessary Identifies where (what/for who) training and development is necessary Specify training objectives and design training programs Develop measures for training evaluation © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSISStudy of the entire organization including its strategy, environment, resources, and context © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSISStrategy Consists of an organization’s mission, goals, and objectives such as a dedication to quality or innovation Strategic training: Alignment of an organization’s training needs and programs with the organization’s strategy and objectives (SHRM) © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSISEnvironment Can profoundly affect what is offered and trainee’s receptiveness to training New technologies, laws, competitors, recessions, and trade agreements © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSISResource analysis: Identification of the resources available Required to design and implement training and development programs 4. Context climate: Collective attitudes: Employees toward work Supervision Company goals Policies and procedures © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSISTraining transfer climate: Characteristics that can either facilitate or inhibit the application of training on-the-job Learning culture: Members of an organization believe that knowledge and skill acquisition are part of their job responsibilities Learning is an important part of work life in the organization © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.TASK ANALYSIS Process of obtaining information about a job by determining the duties, tasks, and activities involved and the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to perform the tasks Job Task © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.TASK ANALYSIS Six steps: Identify the target jobs Obtain a job description Develop rating to rate the importance of each task and the frequency that it is performed Survey a sample of job incumbents Analyze and interpret the information Provide feedback on the results © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.TASK ANALYSIS Job description: Statement of tasks, duties, and responsibilities Lists the specific duties carried out through the completion of several tasks Rapid change has led to development of competencies in job descriptions Competency: Cluster of related knowledge, skills, and abilities that enables the job holder to perform effectively © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
COGNITIVE TASK ANALYSISSet of procedures that focus on understanding the mental processes and requirements for performing a job Differs from traditional task analysis in that it describes mental and cognitive activities that are not directly observable, such as decision making and pattern recognition © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.TEAM TASK ANALYSIS Analysis of tasks of the job, as well as the team-based competencies (knowledge, skills, and attitudes) associated with the tasks Differs from traditional task analysis: Interdependencies of the job, skills required for task coordination, and cognitive skills required for interacting in a team must be identified © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.PERSON ANALYSIS Process of studying employee behaviour to determine whether performance meets standards © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.PERSON ANALYSIS Three-step process: Define the desired performance Determine the gap between desired and actual performance Identify the obstacles to effective performance © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
DETERMINING SOLUTIONS TO PERFORMANCE PROBLEMSMager & Pipe’s Performance Analysis Flowchart for Determining Solutions to Performance Problems Identify root cause of performance problem and choose right solution May or may not include training and development See Figure 4.2 on p. 117 © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
IS TRAINING BEST SOLUTION?It is just one solution for managing performance problems Other solutions may be more effective If training is identified as best solution: Effectiveness can be compromised due to other factors Costs and benefits must also be considered before final decision is made A needs analysis will identify best course of action © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
NEEDS ANALYSIS METHODSNine Methods (Steadham) Observation Questionnaires Key consultation Print media Interviews Group discussion Tests Records and reports Work samples © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
NEEDS ANALYSIS SOURCESEmployees and managers Subject-matter experts Professional shoppers Computer-based analysis © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.OBSTACLES Not rewarded for taking the time (and money) to conduct Feel that they can accurately identify training needs and that more analysis is a waste of time and money Managers may even have their own agendas Cost and time are often viewed as constraints © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
© 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.SUMMARY Introduced the needs analysis process: the first step in ISD model Identified three levels of needs analysis (organization, task, and person) Identified the process for determining solutions to performance problems Highlighted data collection methods and sources of information for needs analysis Discussed obstacles to conducting needs analysis © 2013 by Nelson Education Ltd.
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