2 Definition of training According to Edwin Flippo, training is “the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.”
3 MeaningTraining is a process through which a person enhances and develops his efficiency, capacity, and effectiveness at work by improving and updating his knowledge and understanding the skills relevant to his or her job. Training need = standard performance – actual performance.
4 Importance and Need of training Aids in new entrants attaining role clarityPromotionsPrevents skill obsolescenceImproves quality and productivityMeet organizational objectivesImproves organizational climatePrevent accidentsTo support personal growth and development
5 Process/procedure of training Follow upPerformancePresentationDeveloping training packagesPreparing trainersSelect a target group for trainingDetermining training need of employee
6 Training and development Training vs developmentTraining at different levelsPurpose of trainingLearning curveTransfer of learning
7 Functions of a training program Acquiring knowledgeChange in attitudesHelping to put theory into practiceHelps to evaluate abilities, competenciesEnhances problem solving and decision making abilityImproves performance
8 Success of a training program depends upon Intention to learn from the participantReinforcement provided to the learnerDeveloping the potential from an individual’s point of viewActive participation of the traineeProviding opportunities for practiceTransfer of learning to take place from a training program cognitive
9 Systems approach to T&D Phase I – Needs assessmentPhase II – Design & delivery of T&DPhase III - Evaluation
10 Organisational analysis Operations analysis Individual analysis Phase I – Needs assessmentDetermines the organization’s true needs and the training programs necessary to meet themOrganisational analysisOperations analysisIndividual analysisAdvisory committees, Assessment centres, Attitude survey, Group discussions, Questionnaires, Skills test, Observations of behaviour, Performance appraisals, Performance documents, Exit interviews
11 Phase II – Design & delivery of T&D Training design principles of learningMotivationParticipationFeedbackOrganisationRepetitionApplicationTraining deliveryOn-the-job training (OJT)Away-from-the-job trainingT&D plan & implementation
12 Phase III – EvaluationLevels of evaluation:How did participants react?What did participants learn?How did participants’ behaviour change?What organisational goals were affected?Applying evaluation strategies
13 Training methods on the job /off the job On the job training methods are:Job instruction trainingVestibule trainingTraining by supervisorsCoaching on the job/SimulationApprenticeship
14 Training methods (Contd) Off the job training methods:LecturesConferencesCase studiesRole playProgrammed instruction trainingT group/Sensitivity training
15 Evaluation of training Criteria for evaluation are:Objectives of the programCost-benefit analysisResults obtainedAreas of improvementResources/ staff requiredMethods of evaluation would be:Questionnaires, projects, tests, interviews, observations or participation and discussions.
16 T&D priorities in the 21st century Quality improvement programmesTechnological change-related programmesCustomer service T&D programmes
17 Emerging issues Training is not equally distributed to all employees Expenditure allocated to training is inadequateMismatch between theory and practiceBenefits of training are not immediately realizedSupporting contextual systems needs to be provided in organizationsTop management needs to support the philosophy of training in spirit