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Training and Development

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Presentation on theme: "Training and Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Training and Development

2 Definition of training
According to Edwin Flippo, training is “the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.”

3 Meaning Training is a process through which a person enhances and develops his efficiency, capacity, and effectiveness at work by improving and updating his knowledge and understanding the skills relevant to his or her job.  Training need = standard performance – actual performance.

4 Importance and Need of training
Aids in new entrants attaining role clarity Promotions Prevents skill obsolescence Improves quality and productivity Meet organizational objectives Improves organizational climate Prevent accidents To support personal growth and development

5 Process/procedure of training
Follow up Performance Presentation Developing training packages Preparing trainers Select a target group for training Determining training need of employee

6 Training and development
Training vs development Training at different levels Purpose of training Learning curve Transfer of learning

7 Functions of a training program
Acquiring knowledge Change in attitudes Helping to put theory into practice Helps to evaluate abilities, competencies Enhances problem solving and decision making ability Improves performance

8 Success of a training program depends upon
Intention to learn from the participant Reinforcement provided to the learner Developing the potential from an individual’s point of view Active participation of the trainee Providing opportunities for practice Transfer of learning to take place from a training program cognitive

9 Systems approach to T&D
Phase I – Needs assessment Phase II – Design & delivery of T&D Phase III - Evaluation

10 Organisational analysis Operations analysis Individual analysis
Phase I – Needs assessment Determines the organization’s true needs and the training programs necessary to meet them Organisational analysis Operations analysis Individual analysis Advisory committees, Assessment centres, Attitude survey, Group discussions, Questionnaires, Skills test, Observations of behaviour, Performance appraisals, Performance documents, Exit interviews

11 Phase II – Design & delivery of T&D
Training design principles of learning Motivation Participation Feedback Organisation Repetition Application Training delivery On-the-job training (OJT) Away-from-the-job training T&D plan & implementation

12 Phase III – Evaluation Levels of evaluation: How did participants react? What did participants learn? How did participants’ behaviour change? What organisational goals were affected? Applying evaluation strategies

13 Training methods on the job /off the job
On the job training methods are: Job instruction training Vestibule training Training by supervisors Coaching on the job/Simulation Apprenticeship

14 Training methods (Contd)
Off the job training methods: Lectures Conferences Case studies Role play Programmed instruction training T group/Sensitivity training

15 Evaluation of training
Criteria for evaluation are: Objectives of the program Cost-benefit analysis Results obtained Areas of improvement Resources/ staff required Methods of evaluation would be: Questionnaires, projects, tests, interviews, observations or participation and discussions.

16 T&D priorities in the 21st century
Quality improvement programmes Technological change-related programmes Customer service T&D programmes

17 Emerging issues Training is not equally distributed to all employees
Expenditure allocated to training is inadequate Mismatch between theory and practice Benefits of training are not immediately realized Supporting contextual systems needs to be provided in organizations Top management needs to support the philosophy of training in spirit


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