Presentation on theme: "Climate Climate is the long-term pattern of the weather. Whereas, weather is just what’s happening here, now. (Rain, sun, snow, cold, hot, etc.) Climate."— Presentation transcript:
Climate Climate is the long-term pattern of the weather. Whereas, weather is just what’s happening here, now. (Rain, sun, snow, cold, hot, etc.) Climate is determined by multiple factors: Latitude Proximity to large bodies of water Ocean currents Prevailing winds Vegetative cover Elevation Mountain ranges.
Temperature and precipitation patterns are altered by various natural events, such as volcanic Eruptions and El Nino. El Niño is a warm current that appears along the coast of Ecuador and Peru and lasts only a few weeks to a month or more. Every three to seven years, an El Niño event may last for many months, having significant atmospheric consequences worldwide (1997/1998). Human influences also affect climate: Deforestation Urbanization Over-production of greenhouse gases CO2 and Methane.
A few climate related terms... Climate Ratio: Ratio between precipitation and evaporation Climograph: Shows the average temps and precipitation during the year. Types of climate zones: Arid: Hot/Dry or Cold/Dry Desert: Dry Humid: Hot/Wet Tropical: Warm
More terms: Flora: Plant life Fauna: Animal life Biome: A region characterized by unique climate patterns. Windward: The side of a mountain facing into the prevailing wind. Leeward: The side of a mountain facing away from the prevailing winds. Marine Climate: Always mild due to the moderating effect of water. Continental Climate: Seasonal temps vary widely due to low atmospheric moisture.
And last but not least... Planetary Wind Belt: General direction winds are coming from depending on latitude. (ESRT Page 14!!)
We can use the climate ratio to determine climate type because the ratio will indicate the general humidity conditions for an area. Humid = > 1.2 Arid = <.4 Semi-arid =.4 -.8 Subhumid =.8 – 1.2 Humidity: Is a measure of the amount of water vapor in the air.
Latitude has a tremendous affect on climate patterns; as latitude increases (away from the equator) temperature decreases. Polar Latitudes: >60° N or S Tropical Latitudes: Between 23.5°N/23.5°S Elevation is also a factor; As elevation increases, the temperature decreases and precipitation increases. Water also has a big effect on climate. A large body of water will moderate the temperature of a nearby landmass. Moisture can also be carried on the wind from the water to land.
Mountains will affect climate because the windward side of the mountain will be cool and damp and the leeward side will be warm and dry. Windward: Air rises and cools. Leeward: Air sinks and warms Planetary winds affect the climate in the mid-latitudes (like the USA). For example, the west coast has a marine climate (winds blow from across the water) and the east coast has a continental climate (winds blow from across the continent) Winds blow from ocean to the West coast & across the country to the East coast …
A climograph allows you to determine whether a location is in the northern or southern hemisphere by the curve ~ warm in June/July/August and cold in Dec/Jan/Feb for the northern hemisphere and the opposite for the southern hemisphere. Climographs of two locations; one coastal and one continental, would show a greater temperature change in the continental city and a more moderate climate in the coastal city.
The 23 ½° tilt of the Earth affects climate; if we were at a greater tilt, the tropics would extend father to the north and south and the polar regions would extend farther down, reducing the temperate climates. DAY NIGHT
So ~ to sum things up... There are many factors that affect climate, primarily: Latitude: Temps cools as we move away from the equator. Elevation: Higher elevations have cooler climates. Proximity of water: Water moderates climate and temperature. Mountain ranges: The side of the mountain (leeward or windward) effects climate types. Prevailing winds: Wind from the ocean creates a marine climate; wind from land creates a continental climate. Ocean currents: Warm currents warm the climate, cool currents cool the climate.