3 Tropical Climates - Common Temp. over 180C every dayA relatively flat temperature lineLow latitudeBetween the “Tropics!”Warm ocean currents andPrevailing winds.
4 Tropical Climates-Sub Regions Tropical Wet & Dry Sub- regionVery heavy summer rainVery dry winter due to seasonal shift in prevailing winds.Monsoon regionsSeasons- dry or wetTropical Wet SubregionHeavy rain all year due to high tempResulting convectional rain.Precipitation in each month is high
5 Tropical Wet & Dry - Climate graphs Precipitation is very high in summer months and very low in winter monthsRelatively flat temperature lineTemperature relatively constant & high (19-270C)Wet and dry seasonsWet and dry monsoons
6 Tropical Wet - Climate graphs Precipitation in each month is highTemperature constant & high (19-270C)Relatively flat temperature line
8 Dry Climates All Dry climates: < 500mm precipitation annually More evaporation than precipitationNo cloud coverHigh daytime temperaturesLow nighttime temperaturesTemperatures may vary seasonallyCold ocean currentsRain shadow areas
9 Dry Climates Semi-arid steppe Sub- Region Arid or Desert SubregionOccur between 10-30oN & 10-30oS10-250mm rain annuallyCold ocean currents and rain shadow areasHot days but cool nightsLittle cloud cover allows heat in during day but heat to escape at nightSemi-arid steppe Sub- RegionTransition Zone between desert & Forestmm rain annuallySeasonal shift in prevailing windHot days but cool nights – little cloud cover
10 Arid - Climate graphs Arid /desert Climograph p. 76 fig. 5.2 Below is a climate graph for Berbera, SomaliaPrecipitation in each month is low (total less than 250mm)Temperature may vary seasonally
11 Semi-Arid - Climate graphs Monthly precipitation is fairly lowAnnual total is less than 500mmTemperature may vary seasonally
12 REMEMBER!!!!The main factor that characterizes the DRY climate zone is the amount of precipitation – there is not very much!
13 Temperate Mild winter Temperate Mild Winter Usually near oceans (coastal)Four seasonsHigher latitudes result in cooler winters but warm summersTemperature in coldest month is above –3oCClose enough to equator to affect temperature
14 Temperate Mild winter Marine west coast Coastal regionsMany found on west coast of continents…Winters are mildWarmed by warm ocean currentSummers are cool and wetOrographic precipitation on mountains
15 Temperate Mild winter Mediterranean Mostly around Mediterranean sea area. (Italy, Greece)Hot and DRY summersWind from land has little moistureMild wintersModerating warm wind from the ocean
16 Temperate Mild Winter - Subtropical Close to “Tropics”Hotter summersColder Winters& More precipitationLess moderated by ocean but frontal rainfall as polar and tropical air meetsMore summer precipitationConvectional rain due to high temperatures
17 Which is: Marine West Coast , Mediterranean, Subtropical?
18 Temperate cold winter Also called Continental Locations generally affected by continentalityGenerally the mid LatitudesMain distinguishing factor for the 3 subregions in this group is latitude – closer to equator vs. further from the equatorTemperature of the coldest month is below –3oCHigher latitudes increase seasonal affect.
19 Temperate cold winter - Continental Warm Summer Compared to the other sub-regions in this group:Summer is warmerLower latitude -closer to the equator
20 Temperate cold winter - Continental Cool Summer Further north than the Continental Warm Summer.Result - Summer is cooler than in the Continental Warm Summer.Also means less precipitation than in the Continental Warm Summer.
21 Continental Subregion * Temp Range increases as you move inland.Away from moderating influence of ocean.* Summer days are very long.Higher latitude – increases effect of earth’s tilt.* Summer temp decreases as latitude increases.Further from direct rays of sun.* Summer has highest precipitation.Frontal rainfall as polar and tropical air masses meet.
22 Temperate cold winter - Subarctic Winters are long and very cold –High latitudeLittle precipitationToo coldHeavy snowToo cold for snow to melt
23 Compare precipitation and temperature!! Which is: Continental Warm Summer, Continental Cool Summer, Subarctic?SubarcticCompare precipitation and temperature!!Continental Warm SummerContinental Cool SummerWhich is further north??
24 Polar RegionPolar RegionHigh latitudes(+60o latitude)Near poles
25 POLAR CLIMATES Temperature never goes above 100 C High Latitude Sun may not shine for monthsHigh latitudes increase the effect of the tilt of the earth
26 Polar Region – Tundra Less severe on the coast Has moderating influence of the ocean
27 Polar Region –Ice Cap More severe inland, away from the ocean Temperatures never go above 0o CContinentality makes it colder.Away from moderating influence of ocean
28 Which is Tundra, which is Ice Cap? Notice how little precipitation occurs.
29 Highlands Elevations over 1000 m Colder conditions than the lower lying areas surrounding it.Elevation decreases temperatures
30 Patterns of climatic zones Globally speaking where is each climatic zone concentrated?Tropical ____Dry ____Temperate ___Polar ____Highland ____
31 Practice Question #2 p. 75 Part a Georgetown, Guyana Tropical (Tropical wet)Bombay, IndiaTropical - Monsoonal(Tropical Wet & Dry)MontrealTemperate Cold Winter(Continental Warm Summer)Alice Springs AustraliaDry (arid/semiarid)
32 Practice Question #2 p. 75 Part b Montreal & Alice Springs have wide temperature rangesRe. Temperature ; colder winter in MontrealRe. precipitation; more in MontrealRe. Months of summer; opposite summer months due to North & south Hemispheres
33 Practice Question #2 p. 75 Part c Different hemispheres give opposite seasonsQuestion #2 p. 75 Part dMontreal = temperate cold winter (Cont. Warm Summer)Alice springs = Dry (Semi-arid)Question #3 p. 77 is a good practice question too.