2 EcologyEcology is the study of interactions among organisms and their environment.
3 Ecologists are scientists who study these relationships Ecologists are scientists who study these relationships. Ecologists divide the environmental factors that influence organisms into two groups (abiotic and biotic factors).Many times, ecologists must travel to specific environments to examine the organisms that live there.
5 ENERGY FLOW AMONG ORGANISMS Everything you do requires energy. How do you get the energy that you need?
6 All living things get energy from their food to carry out life processes. Plants make their food.Animals eat their food.
7 A food chain shows how each living thing gets its food A food chain shows how each living thing gets its food. Plants make food using energy from the sun. Some animals eat plants and some animals eat other animals. Each link in a chain is food for the next link. Arrows indicate the direction of energy flow.
8 FOOD CHAINA food chain is the passing of food energy from one organism to another.
9 Plants are called producers because they are able to use the energy from the sun to produce the food they need using carbon dioxide and water.
10 Animals cannot make their own food so they must eat plants and/or other animals. They are called consumers.There are three groups of consumers.
11 A herbivore is called a primary, or first order consumer because it eats the producers. A carnivore that eats herbivores is a secondary, or second order consumer.Some predators are called tertiary, or third order consumers. These animals usually have no predators.
12 Some animals eat dead animals or carrion. They are called scavengers Some animals eat dead animals or carrion. They are called scavengers. They help break down or reduce organic material into smaller pieces.roachvulturehyeina
13 DECOMPOSERS Organisms (bacteria and fungi) which feed on decaying matter. Decomposers and scavengers break down dead plants and animals. They also break down the waste (feces) of other organisms. Decomposers are very important for any ecosystem. If they weren't in the ecosystem, the plants would not get essential nutrients, and dead matter and waste would pile up.
14 FOOD WEBSMost organisms are part of more than one food chain. Many animals eat more than one kind of food in order to meet their food and energy requirements. These interconnected food chains form a food web.
15 Food Web All energy comes from the sun - which makes it the top of the food chain.
18 ENERGY PYRAMIDBecause a large amount of energy is lost at each link, the further along the food chain you go, the less energy is available.We use the energy pyramid as a model to show decreasing available energy at each level in the pyramid.
20 Why are there more primary consumers than secondary? In a food chain, energy is passed from one link to the next.Organisms along a food chain pass on much less energy in the form of biomass (total amount of matter used as energy) than they receive.
22 Producer/Consumer Living things that eat A living thing that the remains andwaste of plants andanimals. Like bacteria,It breaks down organicmaterial.A living thing thatmakes food usingmaterials from theenvironment (nutrients)& theSun.Primary - uses food producedby plants (eats plants)Secondary - obtains energy byeating primary consumer(eats meat)
23 Producers vs. Consumers Producers are plants:GrassTreesFlowersWeedsThe produce energy through photosynthesisConsumers are animals (including humans):Bacteria (also decomposer)insectsrodentsdog/wolf/foxbears
24 INTERACTIONS AMONG ORGANISMS Predator-preyAn animal that hunts or kills other animals for food is called a predator.An animal that is eaten by another is called prey.
25 Can you match some predator-prey relationships?
27 SymbiosisSymbiosis is a long term relationship between 2 or more species- Mutualism – both organisms benefitex. Coral (home) and algae (food)- Commensalism – One organism is helped, while the other is neither helped or harmedex. Remoras ride on sharks and eat what they leave behind in food scraps- Parasitism – one benefits (parasite) the other is harmed (host) and weakenedex. ticks
28 All organisms of thesame species thatlive in the same place.A living thingPopulation thatshares an areaAll populations within acertain area.
29 Biome - a large geographical area having the same climate and major life forms. A ecosystem is a group of organisms & their physical environment.In an ecosystem you have three classes of consumers:Herbivore - eats plants onlyCarnivore - eats meatOmnivore - eats bothA habitat is where an organism lives within an ecosystem.
30 EcosystemsAn ecosystem is the biotic community and its abiotic factors. Examples of ecosystems include coral reefs, forests, and ponds.
31 Biodiversity the differences in living things in an ecosystem The total number of species and biological communities in a region and the amount of genetic variation in each speciesThe loss of biodiversity is a huge ecological problemGenetic diversity decreases as its populations decline- consequences in a population to adapt to changing environmentGenetic variability-measure of its potential to adapt; evolutionary insurance policy
32 _______ _______The carrying capacity is the maximum population size that can live in an environment over time.
33 Limiting FactorA limiting factor is a biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the size of a population.Food can be a limiting factor if the amount of food can only support a certain number of an animal in a population.
34 Limiting factorsBiotic factors are the living or once-living parts of the environment (plants, animals- prey, etc)Abiotic factors are the nonliving parts of the environment (light, water, air, nutrients, soil, minerals, nesting sites)
35 CompetitionThe interaction between two or more organisms, or groups of organisms, that compete for the same resources (in short supply)Can be between members of the same species and/or members of the different speciesMost important aspects of natural selectionResults:reduction in the numbers of one or both competitors-Distribution of organisms in habitats
36 Ensuring Biodiversity Limit pollution (air, soil, water)Control transport of invasive speciesLimit the use of natural resources (clear cutting rainforests, interfering with river flow to wetlands, slow down oil and gas consumption)Conserve natural resourcesProtect endangered species (plants and animals)
37 Ecological Succession - the orderly changes in a ecosystem as one type of community changes into anotherPioneer species – lichens and mosses – live in area and grow on rocks, releasing acids that break them down over time to form soilPlants start to grow in soilSmall animals move into areaLarge animals feed on smaller animalsOrganisms die leaving richer soil supported larger plants – shrubsSoil becomes richer supporting treesReaches a stable point of established growth know as a climax community