2 What Is Language? What is speech? What is literacy? Symbolic system Socially constructedWhat is speech?What is literacy?Ability to construct meaningAbility to express meaning
3 Theoretical Perspectives of Language Development BehaviorismStems from operant conditioningNativismNoam Chomsky – LAD language acquisition deviceInteractionismInformation Processing – Use working memory and attention to explainSociocultural – Social interaction and culture aid in language developmentFunctionalism – Language development provides practical benefits to children
4 Primary Language Specialization Centers in the Brain
5 Current Understanding of Language Development Biological componentPrimed to discriminate all phonemesEffect of environmentSynaptic pruningImitation, infant-directed speechChildren’s construction of languagebootstrapping
6 Components of Language PhonologySemanticsSyntaxPragmaticsLexicon
7 Infancy (Birth-12 months) Developing LanguageInfancy (Birth-12 months)Interest in human voiceCooingBabblingUnderstanding some wordsPreverbal gesturesPreference for sounds combinations and syllable patterns of native languageBabbling reflects native language
8 Developing Language Holophrases Vocabulary explosion 2-Word sentences Infancy ( months)Use of single wordsHolophrasesVocabulary explosion2-Word sentencesTelegraphic speech
9 Developing LanguageEarly Childhood (2-6)Fast-mapping, vocabulary growing from ,000 wordsUndergeneralizationOvergeneralizationOverregularization3-word sentencesMore complex sentencesDifficulty pronouncing some phonemesIncreasing ability to construct narratives
10 Developing Language Vocabulary increases 4x Middle Childhood (6-10)Vocabulary increases 4xIncreasing understanding of language conceptsSustained conversations about concrete topicsPragmatics more sophisticatedFocus on literacyLinguistic creativity and word playPronunciation mastered
11 Developing LanguageAdolescenceIncreasing awareness of the terminology used in various academic disciplinesAbility to understand complex, multiclause sentencesEmerging ability to carry on lengthy conversations about abstract topicsMastery of a wide variety of connectivesAbility to understand figurative language
12 Developing Literacy 2-3 year olds: Enjoys short stories Preschool2-3 year olds:Enjoys short storiesLabels objects in booksScribbles using circles and lines3-5 year oldsEnjoys booksCan answer questions about a storyUnderstands print carries a messagePretends to read and writeRecognizes environmental printRecognizes many letters
13 Preschool and Kindergarten Developing LiteracyPreschool and KindergartenExcited by books and book talkRe-telling storiesPhonemic awarenessAlphabetic principlePrint awarenessInvented spellingReading sight words
14 Identifying Cultural Differences in Sociolinguistic Conventions CharacteristicLook forImplicationsTalkativenessFrequent talking, even about trivial matters, orSilence unless something important needs to be saidDon’t interpret a child’s sudden or lengthy silence as necessarily reflecting apathy or intentional rudeness.Style of Interacting with AdultsWillingness to initiate conversations with adults, orSpeaking to adults only when spoken toKeep in mind that some children won’t tell you when they’re confused. If you think they may not understand, take them aside and ask specific questions to assess what they have learned. Provide additional instruction to address any gaps in understanding.
15 Identifying Cultural Differences in Sociolinguistic Conventions CharacteristicLook forImplicationsEye ContactLooking others in the eye when speaking or listening to them, orLooking down or away in the presence of adultsDon't assume that children aren't paying attention just because they don't look you in the eye.Personal SpaceStanding quite close to a conversation partner, perhaps touching that person frequently, orKeeping distance between oneself and others when talking with themGive children some personal space during one-on-one interactions. So that they might more effectively interact with others, teach them that what constitutes personal space differs from culture to culture.
16 Identifying Cultural Differences in Sociolinguistic Conventions CharacteristicLook forImplicationsResponses to QuestionsAnswering questions readily, orFailure to answer very easy questionsBe aware that some children are not accustomed to answering the types of questions that adults frequently ask during instruction. Respect children’s privacy when they are reluctant to answer questions about home and family life.Wait TimeWaiting several seconds before answering questions, orNot waiting at all, and perhaps even interrupting othersWhen addressing a question to an entire group, give children several seconds to think before calling on one child for an answer. When some children interrupt regularly, establish a procedure (e.g., hand-raising and waiting to be called on) to ensure that everyone has a chance to be heard.