Presentation on theme: "Language: the Key to Literacy Language and Reading Have a Unique Relationship."— Presentation transcript:
Language: the Key to Literacy Language and Reading Have a Unique Relationship
Spoken Speech is often different from written language §Emergent readers need to match speech to print. §Children might not understand that words are distinct units. §Rebus is a good technique to overcome this problem. The girl is :)
Oral language §Listening and speaking are related to reading and writing. §Oral level of language must be at a high level of proficiency before written language develops. §Oral language helps children understand written language. Environmental print. On and off. Stop. Color words on the crayon.
Logo graphics §Frith 1985 Stage of reading development when children learn words as whole. §Logos for McDonald’s §Later the child learn sound/symbol relationships. Stage 2 Chall Reading
Difficult text §Language that is more complex than the child’s oral language. §Language or terms they have heard before is difficult.
Using oral language to unlock print. §Developmental §Younger students depend on oral language to unlock text. §Older student depend on experiences to unlock print.
Reciprocal relationship §Between reading and oral language. §Need direct experiences with print. §Word recognition skills develop at the same time the children are understanding about print functions, the nature of stories, and other clues that help them anticipate words and understand them.
Language awareness comes from reading and writing. §Gaining knowledge from phonemens, words, sentences, story structure and communication of meaning. §Helps students understand syntax and semantic and builds their vocabularies. §
Context clues: §Example with oral language: facial expressions and gestures aren’t available with phone messages. §The same is true with print. Context clues might be missing.
Decontextualized language: §New information for reader. §Needs background information. §Words and syntax must supply these clues to background knowledge.
Using contextualized print for clues. §Connect the new print to words with meaning. I love M&Ms. §Don’t stress the separateness of sound/symbol relationship and forget the meaning of the print. §Language meaning features must be stressed when teaching writing, as well.
Only direct involvement in actual reading and writing... §Will help children develop literacy capabilities that complement and extend their language development. §About 6th grade the students actually learn new vocabulary from reading instead of hearing it. §Students come to school knowing about 8,000 words. They learn more words literacy activities.
Students who have been read to: §Connect oral and written words earlier. § They recognize whole words, §Connect pictures with the story, and §Know the features of a book.
Print that is different from what they’ve heard. §Dialect is hard to read for 2nd graders. §They can’t write better than they can speak. §Children’s experiences both in and out of school should be bound together with language and communication.
Structure of Language §Phoneme: Smallest unit of sound /t/, /p/. §Grapheme: Symbol to represent a sound. Top has 3 graphemes. Chop also has three graphemes. Why? Ch represents one sound. §Grapheme-Phoneme Relationship: letter/sound correspondence. §Phonics: Teaching approaches and strategies used to learn sound/symbol relationships and spelling patterns.
Meaning of Language §Semantics- meaning of words and their interrelationships. Vocabulary acquisition is known as semantic acquisition. §Morpheme: the smallest unit of meaningful language. Free and bound: dog is free and can be used with any other morpheme. Dog(s) is bound and must be used with the dog. Dogs has 2 morphemes.
Structural Features of Language §Syntax- The patterns or grammar of the language. §Children must learn the relationship between word spelling and pronunciations to become good readers. (Chall 1996,Stahl 1996, Adams, 1990)
Over emphasizing words: §Might inhibit the developmental abilities in using syntax and semantic clues to arrive at meaning. If a student is reading orally and stumbles on a word, give the child the word quickly so that meaning is not interrupted. Phonics is suppose to become automatic. This helps it become automatic.
Regional dialect. §Language the student first encounters. §Standard English might be foreign to him. §If English is a 2nd language, this is more evident. §Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners have difficulty with Standard English.
Linguistically diverse students have some language §But lack vital parts of the language needto learn English rapidly. §Lack phonology (inventory of meaningful sounds.) Vietnamese children may lack sounds of s, es, t, d at the end of words. §They may lack syntax or semantic to learn English automatically. Eskimo have several different words for snow. Navajo have several different words for rough.
Different Social Pragmatics §Navajo quietly wait their turn to speak while digesting every nuance of the speech patterns. It is considered very rude to ‘chime in’ with an idea while someone else is speaking.
Reading is linking to strengths and weakness of oral language. §Help students gain informational background. This promotes their success in both reading and writing. §The interactive process of reading and writing shares similar components. l Readers compose meaning as they record their thoughts on paper. l Writers compose meaning as they process text
Both operate at separate levels. §Using word recognition strategies §Using and understanding language structure, §Organizing ideas, §Applying background knowledge §Monitoring the composition of the meaning process. §Generally students are better readers than writers.
What makes a successful reader and writer? §1. Prepare by tapping background knowledge §2. Predict what you will read or write §3. Determine the purpose for writing §4. Select topics you will write about
Compose a 1st Draft §1. Monitor the understanding of the text §2. Monitor the reactions to the text §3. Relate new information to old §4. Expand vocabularies by reading and writing. §Know where to go for help. §Filter important ideas from details.