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Chapter 9: Cognitive Development in Preschool ChildrenMODULES 9.1 Cognitive Processes 9.2 Language 9.3 Communicating with Others 9.4 Early Childhood Education Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Module 9.1 Cognitive ProcessesLEARNING OBJECTIVES Name the distinguishing features of thinking during the preoperational stage. Discuss how children’s information processing improves during the preschool years. Explain why Vygotsky viewed development as an apprenticeship. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education CanadaPiaget’s Account Preschoolers are in Piaget’s preoperational stage. Children can use symbols but there are many weaknesses in their thinking: egocentrism, centration, and appearance as reality. Improved biological theories and theory of mind. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education CanadaThree-Mountains Task Conservation Tasks Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Information-Processing Perspectives on Preschool ThinkingDuring the preschool years, children become better at regulating their attention. Autobiographical memory originates in the preschool years. Preschoolers’ counting follows 3 basic principles. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive DevelopmentZone of proximal development: difference between what one can do alone and with assistance. Scaffolding: matching the amount of assistance to the learner’s needs. Private speech: comments intended to regulate own behaviour. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education CanadaModule 9.2 Language LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe the conditions that help preschoolers expand their vocabularies. Understand how children progress from speaking single words to complicated sentences. Discuss how a child acquires the grammar of the child’s native language. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Encouraging Word LearningTalk more, but with not at children. Asking children questions while reading fosters identification of meaning of new words. Bilingual children learn language as rapidly as monolinguals. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
The Effect of Asking Children QuestionsCopyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
From Two-Word Speech to Complex SentencesSpeech is often telegraphic in 1-year-olds. Gradually by 2-years of age add grammatical morphemes. Rule-based so errors of overregularization occur. “Wug” Stimuli Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
How Children Acquire GrammarLanguage input is important but more than just imitation because children’s speech has its own grammar. Neural circuits in the brain allow children to infer grammar of the language they hear. Semantic bootstrapping hypothesis: children rely upon word meaning to discover grammatical rules. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Module 9.3 Communicating with OthersLEARNING OBJECTIVES Explain when and how children learn conversational turn-taking. List the skills required to be an effective speaker. Describe what is involved in becoming a good listener. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education CanadaTaking Turns Even before children speak, parents model turn-taking. By age 3, children know this is a key rule. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education CanadaSpeaking Effectively Toddlers’ first conversations are about themselves. Preschoolers adjust their speech based on the age of the listener and the context. Understand that when listeners misunderstand, speakers need to do something, such as repeating what they said. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education CanadaListening Well Preschoolers often don’t detect ambiguities in messages or assume they understand the speaker’s intent. Preschoolers are more likely to believe confusing statements or statements that contradict their beliefs when told by a parent instead of a peer. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Module 9.4 Early Childhood EducationLEARNING OBJECTIVES Identify how the aims of preschool programs are best achieved. Explain how effective Head Start programs are. Discuss whether television can be used to educate preschool children. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Varieties of Early Childhood EducationPreschools and daycare centers may not be the same. Goal of child-centered programs is to educate the whole child. Academic programs follow an explicit curriculum to achieve academic goals. Many programs based on Piagetian ideas. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Preschool Programs for Economically Disadvantaged ChildrenChildren from low-income families benefit from programs, such as Head Start, that foster healthy development. In general, children in Head Start are less likely to repeat a grade, less likely to be in special education and more likely to graduate from high school. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Using TV to Educate Preschool Children3-year-olds who watch Sesame Street, now called Sesame Park in Canada, regularly have larger vocabularies later. Viewers of shows that stress prosocial behaviour, such as Mr. Dress-Up, are more likely to act prosocially. TV watching does not lead to decreased attention span, mixed findings regarding impact on creativity. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education CanadaConclusions During the preschool years, children form a theory of mind- a naïve understanding of connections between thoughts, beliefs, and behaviour. Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a collaboration between a novice child and more skilled teachers who scaffold children’s learning. As children move beyond two-word speech, they begin to master questions, negation, and other more complex sentence forms. Although early childhood education programs vary in the structure of the curriculum, all anchor teaching in play. The contents of TV programs can influence children’s development. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education Canada
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