Presentation on theme: "Climate and Climate Change"— Presentation transcript:
1 Climate and Climate Change Seventh gradeEarth Science
2 The Big Ideas What is climate? Why is one climate different from another?How are climates classified?How has climate varied over time?What causes seasons?How does the ocean affect climate?How can human activities affect climate?How are predictions for future climate change made?
3 ClimateThe long-term average weather conditions that occur in a particular region.There are many variables that determine an area’s climate.
4 LatitudeThe amount of solar energy that hits the earth’s surface depends on its latitude. Locations near the equator tend to have warmer climates than locations at higher latitudes.
5 AltitudeTemperature decreases as altitude increases. Locations at higher altitudes will have lower temperatures.
6 Rain ShadowsMountains influence climate another way. They are barriers to prevailing winds. This causes unique precipitation patterns called rain shadows. A rain shadow is an area of low rainfall on the downwind slope of a mountain.
7 Large bodies of waterHigh specific heat of water causes the climates along the coastlines to remain more constant than those in the middle of a continent.Remember that specific heat is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of material by 1 degree C.Specific heat of water is six times that of land.Ocean currents also affect climate. The Gulf Stream is a warm current flowing northward along the east and south coast of the United States. It brings warmer temperatures.
8 Classifying ClimatesPolar climate-cold year round, minimal precipitation