Presentation on theme: "WHY do I need to understand the FUNCTIONS of CARBOHYDRATES? Most food mixtures contain carbohydrates so it is vital to understand how they work in the."— Presentation transcript:
WHY do I need to understand the FUNCTIONS of CARBOHYDRATES? Most food mixtures contain carbohydrates so it is vital to understand how they work in the field of Food Science.
CARBOHYDRATES Major source of energy for humans Provide 55% to 80% of calorie needs Form vital structure of living cells Sugars Starches FibersThree groups of carbohydrates: Sugars Starches Fibers
CARBOHYDRATE PRODUCTION Carbohydrates are compounds composed of three elements:CARBONOXYGENHYDROGEN These three elements are loosely bound with water.
CARBOHYDRATE PRODUCTION continued…. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants convert energy from the sun into the most common of the carbohydrates, glucose. As the plant matures, it makes glucose into fiber to form the structure of the stems and leaves. As the plant reaches full size, it begins to transfer its energy into sugars and starches.
Tender, young kernels of corn are sweeter than mature kernels because they contain a higher percentage of sugars.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS EQUATION 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + sunlight C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
The simplest type of carbohydrate SACCHRAIDE (organic chemistry name) is the name given to all carbohydrates classified as sugars. It is an organic compound which means it is a sugar that contains carbon compounds What is SUGAR?
Sugars Are Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the foundation of our food chain. The energy we get from consuming carrots, broccoli, apples, bananas, potatoes milk or eggs comes from the carbohydrate the plant stores in its roots, seeds, leaves, stems fruit or animal by-products such as milk and eggs. All carbohydrates are made up of one or more molecules of sugars.
The family of sugars includes: MonosaccharidesMonosaccharides contain one basic molecule DisaccharidesDisaccharides two monosaccharides joined together
In organic chemistry names of saccharides end in ose
Monosaccharides Examples of monosaccharides found widely in food products are: Fructose – fruits and honey Glucose – blood, grapes and corn Mannose – eggs and some plants Galactose – only found in animals and humans; milk Ribose – used to make DNA (contains only 5 carbon atoms)
The monosaccharides glucose, galactose and fructose all have the same molecular formula but they vary in their molecular structure.
GLUCOSE C 2 H 12 O 6 CHEMICAL FORMULA C 2 H 12 O 6 The most abundant of the sugars People’s basic energy source The body converts all sugars & starches into glucose before using it for energy
Disaccharides Examples of disaccharides found widely in food products are: Sucrose – table sugar Maltose – malted grains Lactose – sugar found in milk
SUCROSE SUCROSE or common table sugar is a sweet white crystalline solid often used as a food additive. glucose and fructose Sucrose is a made up of the two simple sugars glucose and fructose which are joined together by a chemical bond known as a glycosidic bond.
Sucrose is a disaccharide sugar. During the digestive process the sucrose molecule is broken down into the two monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, which can be easily absorbed through the villi of the intestine. Sucrose + water = hydrolysis = Glucose + Fructose
Where do we get Sucrose Where do we get Sucrose ? Sugar Cane Sugar Beet Table Sugar commonly called Table Sugar AND
SUGAR VIDEO View the 8:36 minute video (53.5 MB) containing information on sugar including: How is sugar grown? How is sugar harvested? How is sugar processed? Web Site is http://www.sugar.org/http://www.sugar.org/
The three common disaccharides lactose, sucrose and maltose also have the same molecular formula but differ in their formula structure.
Lactose is also known as ‘milk sugar’ because it is primarily found in dairy products.
LACTOSE INTOLERANCE Genetic disorder Lack enzyme needed to break down lactose into glucose and galactose Prevents lactose from being absorbed by the body
RESOURCES Principles of Food Science, Glencoe, 2007. Janet Ward. http://www.airmp3.me/download/the_archies/sugar_sugar/mp3/dlaXa_e7a4_0 http://www.food-info.net/uk/colour/caramel.htm http://www.practicallyedible.com/edible.nsf/pages/caramelization http://www.enotes.com/food-encyclopedia/caramelization http://www.sugar.org http://www.sugar.org/images/docs/about-sugar.pdf http://www.sugar.org/images/docs/how-well-do-you-know-sugar.pdf http://www.chemicalformula.org/sugar http://www.americansugarbeet.org/who-we-are/what-is-a-sugarbeet.html http://www.esteticamelocoton.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugarcane http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbohydrate http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sucrose http://www.worsleyschool.net/science/files/sugar/page.html http://www.dixiecrystals.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dairy_product http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dairy_cattle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maltose A little something to help you remember all you learned about SUGAR……click here