4 Organic vs. Inorganic Organic Inorganic Contain CARBON One exception is CO, or carbon monoxideInorganicDo NOT contain carbonWhat are some inorganic molecules?
5 Hydrocarbons =contain only carbon and hydrogen Many are important fuelsMethaneButanePropaneEnergy-storing fat moleculesTwo other atoms frequently found in organic molecules are __________ and __________.
6 Functional Groups=a group of atoms with in a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules-OH groups are hydrophilicWhat does that mean?
7 Monomers and Polymers Monomers Polymers Small, similar molecular unitsPolymersLong chains of monomersCan be a straight chain or branchedEvery cell has thousands of different polymersVary from cell to cell within an organism
8 Life’s Large Molecules CarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic acids
9 Building PolymersEvery time a monomer is added to a chain, a WATER molecule is releaseThis is called a _______________ reaction
10 Building PolymersEvery time a monomer is added to a chain, a WATER molecule is releaseThis is called a DEHYDRATION reaction
15 What you should be able do after instruction on Section 5.1: Identify carbon skeletons and functional groups on organic moleculesRelate monomers and polymersDescribe the process of building and breaking polymersUse this information when studying for your test!
16 5.2 Carbohydrates =an organic cpd made up of sugar molecules Used as an energy sourceCan be stored for later useCan be used within minutes
17 Sugars Contain C, H, and O in a specific ratio Ratio 1C:2H:1O Formula (CH2O)nMost sugar molecules in naturehave a ring shape
18 Monosaccharides =simple sugars containing just one sugar unit Examples GlucoseFructoseGalactoseNames of sugars end in ________
19 Monosaccharides =simple sugars containing just one sugar unit Examples GlucoseFructoseGalactoseNames of sugars end in -ose
21 GlucoseExists in both straight-chain and ring-shaped structures
22 Sugar Molecules Are the main fuel supply for cellular work esp glucose!Cells break down sugar molecules and extract the stored ECells use the carbon skeletons of monosaccharides as raw materials for other organic molecules
23 What if sugars aren’t used right away? Incorporated into larger carbohydratesORUsed to make fat molecules
24 DisaccharidesUsing a dehydration reaction, cells put together 2 monosaccharides to make one disaccharideMost common is sucroseOther examples:Lactosemaltose
25 Sucrose Glucose + Fructose Major carb in plant sap, so… Nourishes plantTable sugar is extracted from stems of sugar cane or roots of sugar beetsCan be broken down and used as soon as consumedOr can store glucose
27 Polysaccharides =long polymer chains made up of simple sugar monomers Examples:StarchGlycogenCellulose
28 Starch Found in plant cells Composed of glucose monomers BranchHumans can break down starch unto useful energyExamples of foods rich in starch:PotatoesRicecorn
29 Glycogen In animal cells More highly branched than starch In humans Stored as granules in liver and muscle cellsWhen body needs E, it breaks down glycogen, releasing glucose
30 Cellulose Functions: A building material in plants Protect cells Stiffen plant so it doesn’t fall overMade of glucose monomersMultiple cellulose chains form H bondsMakes a cable-like fiber in the cell walls
31 Cellulose Most animals cannot digest cellulose So… Why?So…Passes through body unchangedIt is NOT a nutrientCows and termites can digest cellulose…How?
32 Properties ALMOST all carbs are hydrophilic because of –OH groups Mono- and disaccharides dissolve easily in waterCellulose and some starches do not dissolve in water (even though they are hydrophilic)Why?Why is this good for the textile industry?