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Grammar Review Journalism/New Media II Summer 2009.

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1 Grammar Review Journalism/New Media II Summer 2009

2 Remember the five most common grammar errors? Punctuation –Get to know the semicolon –Commas are not free Subject/verb agreement –Team takes a singular verb! Pronouns Sentence structure Word usage

3 Commas are not free! Use them for: –Compound sentences when clauses are separated by a conjunction I have a car, but I prefer to walk to school. –Separating elements in a series: She likes to eat pasta, broccoli, peas and cupcakes. (AP style omits comma before conjunction) –Attribution: The professor said, “Make sure you study your grammar!” or “I hated that movie,” the student said.

4 More on commas They follow introductory matter (after an introductory clause) When the teacher handed out the syllabus, several students left the room. They’re also used after a phrase with a verb used as a modifier –Talking as they ran, they didn’t hear the car coming. They follow all items in a date or address: –September 11, 2001, began as a beautiful day.

5 Even more on commas They surround non-essential words or phrases –As for the cherry pie, well, let’s just say it’s gone. They set of appositives (words that rename a noun) –Barack Obama, a democrat from Illinois, is running for president

6 The semi-colon Use the semi-colon when: –Linking two independent clauses that have no coordinating conjunction linking them. In place of: and, so, but, yet. Ex: Maria ate 2 dozen cookies on Wednesday; she regrets it. The judge issued her decision today; the defendant will spend four months in federal prison.

7 Another use for the semi-colon The semi-colon should also be used when two independent clauses are linked by a conjunctive adverb: however, moreover, nevertheless, therefore… –Ex: We took too long at dinner; therefore, we missed the movie.

8 Subject/Verb Agreement Confusing collective subjects: –Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Checkers—are all treated as singular nouns The Boy Scouts has a special badge for community service. Checkers is my favorite game. Latin endings: –The Media are –The alumni are…

9 Fractions/percentage Fractions or percentages are considered singular –Three-quarters of the pie is gone. –Ninety-five percent of voters is needed for a majority.

10 Either, neither, nor, everyone, anybody Are always singular –Either is fine with me. –Neither candidate has my vote. –Everyone likes Jerry. –Anyone can bake an apple pie.

11 Who/Whom Who is the subject of the clause. –Who is that? –Who gave you the ice cream? –The man who is walking stopped to tie his shoe.

12 Who/Whom Whom is the object of a preposition –Whom do you prefer as President? –To whom are you speaking?

13 That and Which If a sentence can be read without the subordinate clause and the meaning does not change, “which” should be used. Otherwise, use “that.” Cakes, which have a lot of calories, are delicious. The cake that is in the kitchen is for the bake sale. That RESTRICTS and which ELABORATES

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