Presentation on theme: "Grammar Review Journalism/New Media II Summer 2009."— Presentation transcript:
Grammar Review Journalism/New Media II Summer 2009
Remember the five most common grammar errors? Punctuation –Get to know the semicolon –Commas are not free Subject/verb agreement –Team takes a singular verb! Pronouns Sentence structure Word usage
Commas are not free! Use them for: –Compound sentences when clauses are separated by a conjunction I have a car, but I prefer to walk to school. –Separating elements in a series: She likes to eat pasta, broccoli, peas and cupcakes. (AP style omits comma before conjunction) –Attribution: The professor said, “Make sure you study your grammar!” or “I hated that movie,” the student said.
More on commas They follow introductory matter (after an introductory clause) When the teacher handed out the syllabus, several students left the room. They’re also used after a phrase with a verb used as a modifier –Talking as they ran, they didn’t hear the car coming. They follow all items in a date or address: –September 11, 2001, began as a beautiful day.
Even more on commas They surround non-essential words or phrases –As for the cherry pie, well, let’s just say it’s gone. They set of appositives (words that rename a noun) –Barack Obama, a democrat from Illinois, is running for president
The semi-colon Use the semi-colon when: –Linking two independent clauses that have no coordinating conjunction linking them. In place of: and, so, but, yet. Ex: Maria ate 2 dozen cookies on Wednesday; she regrets it. The judge issued her decision today; the defendant will spend four months in federal prison.
Another use for the semi-colon The semi-colon should also be used when two independent clauses are linked by a conjunctive adverb: however, moreover, nevertheless, therefore… –Ex: We took too long at dinner; therefore, we missed the movie.
Subject/Verb Agreement Confusing collective subjects: –Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Checkers—are all treated as singular nouns The Boy Scouts has a special badge for community service. Checkers is my favorite game. Latin endings: –The Media are –The alumni are…
Fractions/percentage Fractions or percentages are considered singular –Three-quarters of the pie is gone. –Ninety-five percent of voters is needed for a majority.
Either, neither, nor, everyone, anybody Are always singular –Either is fine with me. –Neither candidate has my vote. –Everyone likes Jerry. –Anyone can bake an apple pie.
Who/Whom Who is the subject of the clause. –Who is that? –Who gave you the ice cream? –The man who is walking stopped to tie his shoe.
Who/Whom Whom is the object of a preposition –Whom do you prefer as President? –To whom are you speaking?
That and Which If a sentence can be read without the subordinate clause and the meaning does not change, “which” should be used. Otherwise, use “that.” Cakes, which have a lot of calories, are delicious. The cake that is in the kitchen is for the bake sale. That RESTRICTS and which ELABORATES