Presentation on theme: "The Basics & Finding Subjects and Objects"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Basics & Finding Subjects and Objects Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, Linking Verbs, Prepositions, Subjects, & Objects
2 What is a noun? A noun NAMES a person place thing or idea. Find the nouns in the following sentence:3:10 to Yuma is an exciting film with an unusual ending.Nouns: 3:10 to Yuma, film, ending
3 What is a Pronoun? A pronoun replaces a noun or another pronoun. Ex. he, she, it, their, one, thatHe went to the party but left it early.IMPORTANT: Nouns and Pronouns are ALWAYS either Subjects or Objects
5 Active VerbsExpress actionsEx. run, jump, laugh, think
6 Linking Verbs express a state of being act like equal signs (=) 5 senses: look, sound, taste, feel, smellTo be verbs: am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been, will be
7 What is a preposition?A word that links an object to other words in the sentence using time and space.Any word that can describe an object’s position in relation to a box.On, in, around, above, below, beside inside…
8 Special Prepositions What if there is more than 1 box? Between 2 boxesAmong 3 or more boxesUncommon Prepositions: like, unlike, except, about, asTime Prepositions: before, after, during
9 9 Most Common Prepositions InOfForFromToWithAtBy
10 Subjects and Objects What is the subject of the following sentence? One of the candidates running for the position of president of the United States is going to win.
11 How to Find ObjectsThe first noun or pronoun after a preposition is an object.The first noun or pronoun after a verb or verbal is an object.Exception: The first noun or pronoun after a linking verb is not an object.
12 How To Find the Subject of a Verb Find the verb.Find the 1st noun or pronoun before the verb.Is that noun or pronoun an object?No=subjectYes=keep looking before for the next noun or pronounIf you can’t find the subject before the verb, then it is always the first noun or pronoun after the verb.
13 What are Verbals(Verb Forms)? Verbals are words that look like verbs but ARE NOT verbs.
14 Verb-ingsIf there is a helping verb in front of a verb-ing = proper verbEx. I am running.If the verb-ing describes a noun = adj = present participleEx. The running man is my favorite dance.If the verb-ing names an action = noun = gerundEx. Running is my favorite thing to do.Ex. I like running.
15 Past Tense VerbsIf the past tense verb expresses an action = proper verbEx. I completed the test.If the past tense verb describes a noun = adj = past participleEx. The completed test is 3 pages long.
16 Infinitives Infinitives = to verb Infinitives are NEVER PROPER VERBS!! AdjectivesAdverbsNounsInfinitives are NEVER PROPER VERBS!!How can you tell when “to” is a preposition or an infinitive?Look at what comes after it:to noun = prepositionto verb = infinitive
17 Verbals (Verb Forms) Participles (Past and Present) Gerunds Infinitives
18 Part Two: Why was all that basic stuff important? Subject/Verb Agreement
20 “I” plural in the present tense Singular in the past tense Except for “am”Ex. I walk to the store. Walk w/ no “s” =pluralSingular in the past tenseI was at the store. Was=singular
21 “You” Always plural in both past and present tenses. Ex. You walk to the store.Ex. You were in class.
22 Compound Subjects Connected w/ and If the two nouns connected are two separate things = plural verbIf the two nouns connected comprise one idea = singular verbEx. Peanut butter and jelly is / are my favorite sandwich.Ex. Peanut butter and jelly is / are what I need from the store.
23 Compound Subjects Connected with nor, or, neither...nor, or either... or The part of the subject closest to the verb determines if the verb is singular or plural.Ex. Neither the strawberries nor the milk is/are spoiled.Ex. Neither the milk nor the strawberries is/are spoiled.My parents or I am/is/are going to fill out the paperwork.
24 Other words that seem like connectors… As well as, together with, and along withThese words seem like connectors but they are NOT; they all end with prepositions, so the first noun or pronoun after each of these is an OBJECT not part of the subject.Ex. The girl along with her mother is/are going to the store.The subject is “The girl” not “The girl along with her mother”
25 The Following Words are ALWAYS SINGULAR Each, One, Neither, EitherEveryBodyOneThingAny“SomeNo
26 Try these… Neither of the girls was/were happy. Either of the cars is/are satisfactory.Each of the students was/were present.One of the students isn’t/aren’t present.Everyone is/are happy.Someone was/were in the room.
27 One of many… “One of many” when one is the subject =singular. One of the dogs is/are brown.One of the girls was/were on the team.“One of many that, which, or who” =plural.In this case, that, which, or who is the subject and refers to the many.Ex. One of the dogs that is/are brown is sleeping.Ex. She is one of the girls who is/are on the team.
28 There and HereThere and Here are expletives: words that refer to a subject that comes AFTER the verb.Look for the first noun or pronoun after the verb to determine if the verb should be singular or plural.Ex. Here is/are your car keys.Vs.Ex. Here is/are your key.
29 Portion WordsWhen the subject of a sentence is a portion word (all, half, some, percent, none), look at what the portion word is referring to to determine if the verb should be singular or plural.Ex. Half of the pie has/have been eaten.Ex. Half of the pies has/have been eaten.
30 Lump Sums vs. Individual Units Lump Sums=SingularTwenty dollars is the price of the item.Individual Units=pluralTwenty dollar bills are spread on the table.
31 Singular words that sound plural School Subjects: Mathematics, Economics, Physics, Language ArtsEx. Physics is my favorite subject.NewsThe news is always bad.
32 Singular Words that Sound Plural and Require a Plural Verb GlassesPantsScissorsMy glasses are brokenMy pants have a hole in them.Keep in mind that if you add “Pair of” before these words they are singular because “pair” is now the subject and pair singular.
34 Clauses A group of words with a subject/verb relationship. There are two types of clauses:Independent: can stand alone as a complete sentence.Dependent: cannot stand alone because it has a dependent connector in front of it.
35 Dependent Connectors Although Though That Which Who/Whom Because When IfWhereBeforeAfterWhyAsLikeDespiteWhatHow
36 Examples She is going to the park. Because she is going to the park Independent ClauseBecause she is going to the parkDependent ClauseI went to the store.After I went to the movies
37 Phrases A group of words with NO subject/verb relationship Purpose: to describe/modifyEx. In 2006, the country…Ex. After dinner, we…Ex. The boy running down the street was…Ex. One must have a business plan to run a company.
38 A sentence must have… An independent clause to be complete. I went to the store.CompleteDriving to the movies after dinner, when she saw an accident.FragmentFragment: a sentence without an independent clause