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The Basics & Finding Subjects and Objects

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1 The Basics & Finding Subjects and Objects
Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, Linking Verbs, Prepositions, Subjects, & Objects

2 What is a noun? A noun NAMES a person place thing or idea.
Find the nouns in the following sentence: 3:10 to Yuma is an exciting film with an unusual ending. Nouns: 3:10 to Yuma, film, ending

3 What is a Pronoun? A pronoun replaces a noun or another pronoun.
Ex. he, she, it, their, one, that He went to the party but left it early. IMPORTANT: Nouns and Pronouns are ALWAYS either Subjects or Objects

4 What are the two types of Proper Verbs?

5 Active Verbs Express actions Ex. run, jump, laugh, think

6 Linking Verbs express a state of being act like equal signs (=)
5 senses: look, sound, taste, feel, smell To be verbs: am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been, will be

7 What is a preposition? A word that links an object to other words in the sentence using time and space. Any word that can describe an object’s position in relation to a box. On, in, around, above, below, beside inside…

8 Special Prepositions What if there is more than 1 box?
Between 2 boxes Among 3 or more boxes Uncommon Prepositions: like, unlike, except, about, as Time Prepositions: before, after, during

9 9 Most Common Prepositions
In Of For From To With At By

10 Subjects and Objects What is the subject of the following sentence?
One of the candidates running for the position of president of the United States is going to win.

11 How to Find Objects The first noun or pronoun after a preposition is an object. The first noun or pronoun after a verb or verbal is an object. Exception: The first noun or pronoun after a linking verb is not an object.

12 How To Find the Subject of a Verb
Find the verb. Find the 1st noun or pronoun before the verb. Is that noun or pronoun an object? No=subject Yes=keep looking before for the next noun or pronoun If you can’t find the subject before the verb, then it is always the first noun or pronoun after the verb.

13 What are Verbals(Verb Forms)?
Verbals are words that look like verbs but ARE NOT verbs.

14 Verb-ings If there is a helping verb in front of a verb-ing = proper verb Ex. I am running. If the verb-ing describes a noun = adj = present participle Ex. The running man is my favorite dance. If the verb-ing names an action = noun = gerund Ex. Running is my favorite thing to do. Ex. I like running.

15 Past Tense Verbs If the past tense verb expresses an action = proper verb Ex. I completed the test. If the past tense verb describes a noun = adj = past participle Ex. The completed test is 3 pages long.

16 Infinitives Infinitives = to verb Infinitives are NEVER PROPER VERBS!!
Adjectives Adverbs Nouns Infinitives are NEVER PROPER VERBS!! How can you tell when “to” is a preposition or an infinitive? Look at what comes after it: to noun = preposition to verb = infinitive

17 Verbals (Verb Forms) Participles (Past and Present) Gerunds

18 Part Two: Why was all that basic stuff important?
Subject/Verb Agreement

19 Subject/Verb Agreement
Singular Nouns= ( ) no “S” Singular Verbs=(S) The girl walks. Plural Nouns= (S) Plural Verbs=( ) The girls walk.

20 “I” plural in the present tense Singular in the past tense
Except for “am” Ex. I walk to the store. Walk w/ no “s” =plural Singular in the past tense I was at the store. Was=singular

21 “You” Always plural in both past and present tenses.
Ex. You walk to the store. Ex. You were in class.

22 Compound Subjects Connected w/ and
If the two nouns connected are two separate things = plural verb If the two nouns connected comprise one idea = singular verb Ex. Peanut butter and jelly is / are my favorite sandwich. Ex. Peanut butter and jelly is / are what I need from the store.

23 Compound Subjects Connected with nor, or, neither...nor, or either... or
The part of the subject closest to the verb determines if the verb is singular or plural. Ex. Neither the strawberries nor the milk is/are spoiled. Ex. Neither the milk nor the strawberries is/are spoiled. My parents or I am/is/are going to fill out the paperwork.

24 Other words that seem like connectors…
As well as, together with, and along with These words seem like connectors but they are NOT; they all end with prepositions, so the first noun or pronoun after each of these is an OBJECT not part of the subject. Ex. The girl along with her mother is/are going to the store. The subject is “The girl” not “The girl along with her mother”

25 The Following Words are ALWAYS SINGULAR
Each, One, Neither, Either Every Body One Thing Any Some No

26 Try these… Neither of the girls was/were happy.
Either of the cars is/are satisfactory. Each of the students was/were present. One of the students isn’t/aren’t present. Everyone is/are happy. Someone was/were in the room.

27 One of many… “One of many” when one is the subject =singular.
One of the dogs is/are brown. One of the girls was/were on the team. “One of many that, which, or who” =plural. In this case, that, which, or who is the subject and refers to the many. Ex. One of the dogs that is/are brown is sleeping. Ex. She is one of the girls who is/are on the team.

28 There and Here There and Here are expletives: words that refer to a subject that comes AFTER the verb. Look for the first noun or pronoun after the verb to determine if the verb should be singular or plural. Ex. Here is/are your car keys. Vs. Ex. Here is/are your key.

29 Portion Words When the subject of a sentence is a portion word (all, half, some, percent, none), look at what the portion word is referring to to determine if the verb should be singular or plural. Ex. Half of the pie has/have been eaten. Ex. Half of the pies has/have been eaten.

30 Lump Sums vs. Individual Units
Lump Sums=Singular Twenty dollars is the price of the item. Individual Units=plural Twenty dollar bills are spread on the table.

31 Singular words that sound plural
School Subjects: Mathematics, Economics, Physics, Language Arts Ex. Physics is my favorite subject. News The news is always bad.

32 Singular Words that Sound Plural and Require a Plural Verb
Glasses Pants Scissors My glasses are broken My pants have a hole in them. Keep in mind that if you add “Pair of” before these words they are singular because “pair” is now the subject and pair singular.

33 Basic Sentence Structure
Clauses and Phrases

34 Clauses A group of words with a subject/verb relationship.
There are two types of clauses: Independent: can stand alone as a complete sentence. Dependent: cannot stand alone because it has a dependent connector in front of it.

35 Dependent Connectors Although Though That Which Who/Whom Because When
If Where Before After Why As Like Despite What How

36 Examples She is going to the park. Because she is going to the park
Independent Clause Because she is going to the park Dependent Clause I went to the store. After I went to the movies

37 Phrases A group of words with NO subject/verb relationship
Purpose: to describe/modify Ex. In 2006, the country… Ex. After dinner, we… Ex. The boy running down the street was… Ex. One must have a business plan to run a company.

38 A sentence must have… An independent clause to be complete.
I went to the store. Complete Driving to the movies after dinner, when she saw an accident. Fragment Fragment: a sentence without an independent clause

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