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Grammar Skills Workshop

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Presentation on theme: "Grammar Skills Workshop"— Presentation transcript:

1 Grammar Skills Workshop
Prepared by Graham Associates copyright © 2001

2 Parts of Speech Nouns name persons, places, or things.
Verbs show action or existence. Pronouns serve as noun substitutes. Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns. Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Conjunctions join words or groups of words. Prepositions form phrases with nouns and pronouns.

3 Sentence Structure Complete sentences have a subject and verb, and express a complete thought. Fragments are incomplete sentences. Run-ons are complete thoughts joined together without correct punctuation. Comma splices are run-on sentences with a comma between the complete thoughts. Word Phrase Clause -- (Subject, Verb, Object) Dependent and Independent Simple Sentence (Subject, Verb, Object) Note: A simple sentence can have a compound subject or a compound predicate. Compound Sentence = Simple + Simple Complex Sentence = Dependent clause + Simple (or) Simple +Dependent clause Compound-Complex Sentence = Simple + Compound (or) Compound + Simple (or) Compound + Compound

4 Independent and Dependent Clauses
An independent clause is a group of words that express a complete thought. Coordinating conjunctions include and, but, or, nor, for. A dependent clause is a group of words with a subject and verb that doesn’t express a complete thought. Subordinating conjunctions include after, although, because, unless, when, while.

5 Types of Pronouns Subjective ( I ) and objective ( me )
Compound ( myself ) Possessive ( my, mine ) Collective ( its, their ) Indefinite ( everyone, something )

6 Verbs -- Terms Tense = time of the action
Agreement = subject and verb relate same number Conditional = contrary to reality ( If I were )

7 Adjectives and Adverbs -- Terms
Definite and Indefinite articles = the, a, an Double negative = two negative words to express one negative idea

8 Use the Apostrophe With possessive nouns add ’s to singular names
add ’ only to plural nouns ending in s add ’s to plural nouns not ending in s In contractions add ’ where the letters are omitted With plurals of numbers and words add ’s

9 Use the Comma Between the items in a series of three or more
Between two or more adjectives when and is omitted but understood Between two independent thought joined by and, but, or, nor, for After an introductory clause To set off a parenthetical expression To set off states, dates, and abbreviations with names

10 Other Punctuation Marks
Use the Semicolon To join two complete thought not joined by and, but, or, nor, for Between the items in a series when the items have internal commas Use the Colon After a complete thought when a single word, a listing, or a second complete thought follows

11 Use the Dash To set off an abrupt interruption with a sentence
To set off a parenthetical expression that contains commas After a series that comes before a complete thought

12 Use the Hyphen To spell certain words ( twenty-one )
To join two or more words as a compound adjective To divide words at the end of a line

13 Common Sentence Faults
Fragments, run-ons, and comma splices Dangling and misplaced modifiers Non-parallel construction Overuse of passive (indirect) verbs

14 Punctuation Basics Period Sentence . Sentence
Colon Sentence : word, phrase, series, sentence Semicolon Sentence ; sentence Comma Dependent clause , sentence Series a, b, and c Parenthetical, such as an example, phrase or clause

15 English Verbs SIMPLIFY Voice -- Use active voice. RESULT Clarity
Tense -- Use present and past tense. Mood -- Use imperative and indicative mood. RESULT Clarity Shorter, simple sentences

16 Prepositions -- a word that links a noun or pronoun (the object) to another part of the sentence Many of the 72 English prepositions are synonyms of each other: beneath, under, below SIMPLIFY by cutting prepositions. Direction: to, into, onto, across, toward Location: at, in, under, over, around, below, beside, beneath, against Time: before, after, during, until, since Possession: of, with, for Use concrete and specific verbs to avoid idioms associated with phrasal verbs.

17 Possession English shows possession three ways:
possessive case ‘s , his, her, its . . . Preposition of, for, by Adjective system design Learn proper punctuation for the apostrophe ‘. Remember it’s is the contraction for it is. The only possessive pronouns that use an apostrophe are --one’s and --body’s.

18 Obsolete Rules In modern usage you may
end a sentence with a preposition begin a sentence with because show possession for inanimate objects Many people still use some grammar and punctuation rules that predate World War I. Old rules die hard -- Certain disciplines, such as Law, rely heavily on precedents and old texts. Also, some of us had teachers who were 150 years old.

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