2 Parts of Speech Nouns name persons, places, or things. Verbs show action or existence.Pronouns serve as noun substitutes.Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns.Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.Conjunctions join words or groups of words.Prepositions form phrases with nouns and pronouns.
3 Sentence StructureComplete sentences have a subject and verb, and express a complete thought.Fragments are incomplete sentences.Run-ons are complete thoughts joined together without correct punctuation.Comma splices are run-on sentences with a comma between the complete thoughts.WordPhraseClause -- (Subject, Verb, Object) Dependent and IndependentSimple Sentence (Subject, Verb, Object)Note: A simple sentence can have a compound subject or a compound predicate.Compound Sentence = Simple + SimpleComplex Sentence = Dependent clause + Simple (or) Simple +Dependent clauseCompound-Complex Sentence = Simple + Compound (or) Compound + Simple (or) Compound + Compound
4 Independent and Dependent Clauses An independent clause is a group of words that express a complete thought.Coordinating conjunctions include and, but, or, nor, for.A dependent clause is a group of words with a subject and verb that doesn’t express a complete thought.Subordinating conjunctions include after, although, because, unless, when, while.
5 Types of Pronouns Subjective ( I ) and objective ( me ) Compound ( myself )Possessive ( my, mine )Collective ( its, their )Indefinite ( everyone, something )
6 Verbs -- Terms Tense = time of the action Agreement = subject and verb relate same numberConditional = contrary to reality ( If I were )
7 Adjectives and Adverbs -- Terms Definite and Indefinite articles = the, a, anDouble negative = two negative words to express one negative idea
8 Use the Apostrophe With possessive nouns add ’s to singular names add ’ only to plural nouns ending in sadd ’s to plural nouns not ending in sIn contractionsadd ’ where the letters are omittedWith plurals of numbers and wordsadd ’s
9 Use the Comma Between the items in a series of three or more Between two or more adjectives when and is omitted but understoodBetween two independent thought joined by and, but, or, nor, forAfter an introductory clauseTo set off a parenthetical expressionTo set off states, dates, and abbreviations with names
10 Other Punctuation Marks Use the SemicolonTo join two complete thought not joined by and, but, or, nor, forBetween the items in a series when the items have internal commasUse the ColonAfter a complete thought when a single word, a listing, or a second complete thought follows
11 Use the Dash To set off an abrupt interruption with a sentence To set off a parenthetical expression that contains commasAfter a series that comes before a complete thought
12 Use the Hyphen To spell certain words ( twenty-one ) To join two or more words as a compound adjectiveTo divide words at the end of a line
13 Common Sentence Faults Fragments, run-ons, and comma splicesDangling and misplaced modifiersNon-parallel constructionOveruse of passive (indirect) verbs
14 Punctuation Basics Period Sentence . Sentence Colon Sentence : word, phrase, series, sentenceSemicolon Sentence ; sentenceComma Dependent clause , sentenceSeries a, b, and cParenthetical, such as an example, phrase or clause
15 English Verbs SIMPLIFY Voice -- Use active voice. RESULT Clarity Tense -- Use present and past tense.Mood -- Use imperative and indicative mood.RESULTClarityShorter, simple sentences
16 Prepositions-- a word that links a noun or pronoun (the object) to another part of the sentenceMany of the 72 English prepositions are synonyms of each other: beneath, under, belowSIMPLIFY by cutting prepositions.Direction: to, into, onto, across, towardLocation: at, in, under, over, around, below, beside, beneath, againstTime: before, after, during, until, sincePossession: of, with, forUse concrete and specific verbs to avoid idioms associated with phrasal verbs.
17 Possession English shows possession three ways: possessive case ‘s , his, her, its . . .Preposition of, for, byAdjective system designLearn proper punctuation for the apostrophe ‘.Remember it’s is the contraction for it is.The only possessive pronouns that use an apostrophe are --one’s and --body’s.
18 Obsolete Rules In modern usage you may end a sentence with a prepositionbegin a sentence with becauseshow possession for inanimate objectsMany people still use some grammar and punctuation rules that predate World War I.Old rules die hard --Certain disciplines, such as Law, rely heavily on precedents and old texts.Also, some of us had teachers who were 150 years old.